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March-April 1981 Volume 17, Number 6 




The Game Players Magazine 

The Avalon HiN GENERAL is dedicated to rhe presenta- 
tion oi authantahve articles on the strategy, tactics and 
variation of Aval'on Hill war games Historical aniens are 
included only" rnsomuch as ihey provide u&etul background 
information on current Avalon Hill titles The GENERAL is 
published by Itw Avalon Hill Game Company solely for thfl 
cultural edificahon of the serious game aficionado, in thi? 
hopes of improving the; game owner's pro'lpc'tancy of play and 
providing services not otherwise available to the Avalon Hill 
game buff, Avalon Hill ssa riiviswn of Monarch Avalon Industries, 
Inc., a whufely owned subsidiary of Monarch Avalon. Im- IHfl 
shares of Monarch Avalon, Inc. a*e publhclv traded on tno 
NASDAQ System under the symbol MAHI. For information 
about the company wrrie to Harold Cohan at the execut'rva of- 
fices of the company, 4517 Harford flld.. Baltimore, MO 21214 

Publication is bi-monthly with mailings made dose to 
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EDITOR: Donald J Greenwood 
ASS'T EDITOR: Alan R. Moon 

GRAPHICS: Jean Baer, Dale Shosffer, Charles KibJer, Rodger 
MacGowan. Margaret Lehman, Stephanie Cwch 
Cover Art: Rodger MacGowan 
AREA Ttthnicianflr Jack Dott & Robin Bans 
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Questions Concerning Play; Research & De-sign Depart- 

Note All questions should be thoroughly diagrammed No 
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T/|#* Copyright 1*81 

linntv Lorn pant/ 

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Avalon Hill Philosophy Part 84 

The first item on the agenda for this installment 
of the Philosophy is, unfortunately, becoming an 
annual event. It appears as though we will be 
forever known as the "double digit inflation genera- 
tion" and this unfortunate fact of life means that 
1981 has brought us another across-the-board 
price increase for Avalon Hill games. Almost the 
entire line underwent a $1.00 price increase on 
February 1 st with four titles: BULGE, DIPLOMACY, 
SQUAD LEADER, & TITLE BOUT suffering a $2.00 
increase. In addition, numerous parts prices were 
increased. As is our custom, we are giving 
GENERAL readers temporary relief from these price 
increases with our LAST CHANCE SALE. You will 
find a special order form inserted in this issue which 
will allow you to order games by mail at the 1 980 
prices provided you do so on the order form and 
prior to the May 31st deadline. No phone orders 

can be accepted at the old rates. You must return 
the LAST CHANCE SALE order form in order to 

You will also find inserted in this issue the 
official Nominations ballot for the 1980 hobby 
awards. Hopefully, we will have kept up our newly 
established trend of'timety publication and you'll be 
able to send in your nominations just under the 
wire, but don't delay as they have a Mav 8th 
deadline. The awards will be handled differently 
this year and to tell you about that here is the official 
press release of the newly founded Awards 

"The Committee for the Charles Roberts and 
H.G. Wells Awards, the most coveted in the in- 
dustry, have joined the Game Manufacturers' 

Continued on Page 36, Column 2 


An Exhaustive Analysis of the Defense in STALINGRAD 




In Defense of Historical Verity 


Pan II of [he Campaign Game Series Replay By 


The Advance Phase 


THE LONGEST DAY— Clarifications & Addenda 


A Counter to the Perfect Plan in CAESAR'S LEGIONS 


An Interview With Kevin Zucker 


Countering (he TKO in VITP 


Once Again Into Ihe Fray of TRC Opening Setups 


Not Tonight Dear, 1 Just Got THE GENERAL 

By Joseph A. Angiolillo 


By Michael Turner 


By Jim Davis 

Richard Wein & Marcus Wamey 


By Bruce S. Degi 


By Bruce Milligan 


By David Meyler 

By Alan R. Moon 


By Ed O'Connor 


By J. Richard Jarvinen 

By Alan R. Moon 

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by Joseph A. Angiolillo Jr. el al 


Just three issues ago Jon Lock wood showed us 
with a well received analysis of AFRIKA KORPS 
thai the classics aren 't dead after alt. Joe, however, 
is not just another teen of the 60 s with fond remem- 
brances of his first game. Joe is quite familiar with 
the current ' 'state of the art ' ' thank you and has in- 
deed designed a n umder of games for leading com- 
panies in the field, including his own recently 
unveiled publishing venture. Like many others, 
however, he praises the innovations and realism of 
the new games, while still playing the old favorites. 
That he has become more than passingly familiar 
with the techniques of good play in this old war 
horse wilt become immediately evident. 

Tournament play in wargames is still in the in- 
fant stage. Thanks to the formation of a recognized 
national convention {Origins) and a credited rating 
system (A.R.E.A.)il is finally becoming a respected 
pan of the hobby. Many wargamers are chess 
players. It is .no wonder that wargaming has bor- 
rowed concepts from chess in regularizing play and 
showing respect lo superior play. The most 
prestigious tournament, the AH 500, is becoming 
more and more a tournament of skill from year lo 
year. Originally any AH game was included in the 
tournament. This narrowed to the "classics" which 
have been tested by time and rule rewrites to create a 
better balanced game. The biggest step was taken at 
Origins IV (1978) by abolishing AFRIKA KORPS 

as the ultimate tie-break game. It is well known that 
a good AK player can defeat an expert player with 
one lucky die roll against Tobruch. Avalon Hill was 
wise to allow the contestants lo choose any two of 
the three games; AK. STALINGRAD, and 
WA TERLOO for the tournameni instead of forc- 
ing the finalists to play AK if one of the players 
demanded its use. Unfortunately, a small problem 
crept into the tournament [hat should be remedied 
(the same way [hat chess remedied Ihe same prob- 
lem). I am talking about a time limit. In the original 
rounds time limits were not strictly enforced. Con- 
sequently there was a rush at Ihe end of the tourna- 
ment lo finish before the convention was over. The 
final rounds of a tournament are supposed to pair 
the best players and hopefully the best and most 
flawless play. To apply an unjust lime limit destroys 
Ihe balance of the game. The defensive player needs 
a bit more lime than the attacking player to develop 
a good, solid line. The finals, where great play 
should be the norm, was reduced to unit pushing 
and blunders. As ihe time limit dropped to three 
minuies per move even the altacking player 
couldn't move fast enough, let alone count odds. 
Players were planning their move while Ihe oppo- 
nent was moving. Pressure is good for a tourna- 
ment, but this type of pressure is ridiculous. 

Obviously, something must be done. Chess 
loumaments use chess clocks and I feel this is the 

best way to time play. If the tournameni organizers 
dislike the idea or cannot afford chess clocks for the 
last few rounds of play, at least keep a consistent 
time limil during ihe entire tournament, say seven 
minuies per move. In this way llie players will be ac- 
climated to the restrictions and not drop under the 

In still another way wargames should be like 
chess. This concept gelled during the convention tn 
many informal meetings. The most accurate play 
should be recorded. Wargamers have started this 
concept wilh the Series Replay, Play by Mail, etc. 
Chess has recorded excellent play Tor cenluries. 
Consequently nearly flawless lines of play have 
been organized into defenses: ihe Ruy Lopez, the 
English Opening, the Sicilian Defense, Ihe French 
Defense, etc. Obviously some defenses are sounder 
than others and all of them have minor weaknesses 
(hat lead lo reanalysis of old lines previously aban- 
doned and criticism of lines thought impregnable. 
These lines contain perfect tactics, strong positional 
play and extensive analysis. Unforiunaiely, no 
board wargame (nor a specified set of figures rules) 
has been around as long as chess. And no board 
wargame has the static balance of chess nor its com- 
plete reliance on skill rather than luck. Needless to 
say there is a voluminous work, Modern Chess 
Openings (the "Bible" of that game) but no such 
work on any board or figure wargame. It is obvious 
that we need one. And we must start somewhere. 


Best Attack 


Russian Losses 

units factors 

German Losses Good Points 
units factors 



allows 3-1 

gives up the position 

does not require a soak 

I have chosen STALINGRAD for analysis for 
five reasons. First of all, it is one of the three 
"classic" games used in the AH 500, currently the 
most prestigious wargame tournament. Second, 
STALINGRAD is probably the most analyzed 
wargame available (almost every early issue of the 
GENERAL had some article on tactics, strategy, or 
balance). Third, it is one oT the most balanced 
games for tournament play; rules have been 
changed because of the analysis and the replace- 
ment rale has been modified for play balance. 
Fourth, it is less dependent on luck than many other 
wargames (weather die rolls and results of in- 
dividual battles are less critical in this game than in 
A K, RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN, etc.). Finally, I have 
studied the game for many years and consider 
myself a fairly competent player. What I lack in ex- 
perience 1 have compiled — from observing tourna- 
ment play, from corresponding with well known ex- 
perts, and from studying every STALINGRAD ar- 
ticle I could get my hands on. 

Good lines of play are based on good tactics. 
One must know how to defend in order to know 
when and where to attack! Let's first analyze Rus- 
sian defensive tactics. 

Unlike chess, most tactics in STALINGRAD 
evolve through probability analysis of the CRT 
(rather than exact analysis of the consequences of 
any one move). Early articles stressed the theory of 
preventing 3-1 attacks. More subtle but unpub- 
lished analysis considers the number of German 
soak-offs and failure to gain positions due to in- 
ability to advance into a given hex after combat. 
Not only probability but also attrition and preven- 
tion of taking terrain must be used to defeat exact 

German play. Based on these considerations it is 
easy to categorize the overall defensive move one 
position at a time. 

First, examine a doubled defensive position at- 
tackable from three hexes. Position #1 shows how a 
novice would hold. This player neither stops a 3-1 
attack, nor prevents an advance, nor forces a soak- 
off. Position #2 is a minor improvement but still 
poor play. At least a soak-off was forced. Position 
#3 holds the hex and forces a soak off but still does 
not prevent the 3-1— only fair play. #4 is the posi- 
tion recommended in past articles as the perfect 
plan! Every good Stalingrad player knows that a 
doubled 7-10-4 with an adjacent doubled 4-6-4 
which can be attacked from only one hex will stop a 
3-1 . Thus position #4 stops the 3- 1, forces a German 
soak-ofr, and holds the position. Still the position is 
not perfect. What about low odds attacks? By 
stacking both 7-10-4's we get a much better posi- 
tion. Excellent players would use position #5 in- 
stead of #4 because they guard against a 2-1 to ad- 
vance into the hex. In my opinion, the position is 
still not perfect. The reason for my criticism is 
based on the value of the 7-10-4. There are only two 
of these and they are critical units. For holding river 
lines, etc. 1 would rale one 7-10-4 to equal Wi 
6-9-6's, three 5-7-4's, 4'/: 4-6-6 "s or five 4-6-4's. 
The loss of both 7-10-4's by low odds attacks either 
early in the game or during snow is a disaster. Con- 
sequently, they should not be positioned in the same 
hex if the German player can get a 2-1 and l-2atlack 
or 1-1 attack against both units in the open. Posi- 
tion #6 remedies this criticism but is obviously not 
the perfect defense. Note that it requires 50 factors 
(25 doubled) that must be soaked-oTf against. This 
prevents the 6-9-6 from being attacked at 3-1. This 

position is how an expert would hold the line. Note 
position #7 is the best possible defense. Since it re- 
quires so many units it is seldom, if ever, used. 
There are other positions on the line that must be 
guarded. If not, the Russian player cannot lose the 
game (or has already lost it if he has but one posi- 
tion to defend). The doubled defensive position at- 
tackable from three hexes is the hardest position to 
defend properly. 

A quick analysis of the previous described posi- 
tions could reveal the false conclusion that, in 
general, the more combat factors you have on 
defense, the belter the defensive position: #1:7 
defense factors, #2:15 defense factors, #3:12 
defense factors, #4: 1 6 defense factors #5:20 defense 
factors, #6:34 defense factors, etc. Nothing could 
be further from the truth. Observe position #8 again 
but eliminate the 6-9-6 and both 4-6-4's leaving 6 
defense factors. The 2-3-6 can be crushed by soak- 
ing ofr against the 7-10-4. On the subsequent Rus- 
sian player turn the position must be counter- 
attacked or the Russian units must withdraw. Any 
German player worth his salt would welcome 
counterattacks if he has positioned his units cor- 
rectly. Not only does the Russian player lose units 
through soak-offs, but the Russian position must 
be weakened elsewhere to mass the units necessary 
for such a massive counterattack. 

Another important position is the doubled posi- 
tion attackable from two hexes. #8 is poor, giving a 
3-1, no soaks and the advance. #9 is fair; #10 is 
slightly better. #11 observes the present 3-1 strategy 
but doesn't stop a low odds attack. Position #12 is 
excellent but #13 is almost impregnable. 


lies! Attack 

Russian Losses 

units factors 

German Losses 

units factors Good Points 




3.0 prevents 3-1 

allows 3-1 

loses the position 

no soak 


allows 3-1 

loses the position 

no soak 

bury units in swamps 



5.5 prevents 3-1 

1-1 would be cosily 

bury units in swamps 

Doubled positions attackable from only one hex 
are easily defended, As a general rule use any Rus- 
sian unit(s) except a single 2-3-6. Stacking is pre- 
ferred and the more defense factors the better. 
However, the question whether two 2-3-6s or one 
4-6-4 is preferred is quitecontroversial. Thestacked 
2-3-6s prevent the advance if only one is attacked 
and the other is soaked off against. 2-3-6s are 
valuable delaying units and the loss of two such 
units with one low odds attack is hard to take. This 
may be the exception to the general rule that stack- 
ing is preferred so long as the 3-1 is stopped. (See 
positions 14 and 15). 

When the Russian player must defend in the 
open he is usually in trouble. His only savior, the 
weather, is not always to his advantage nor even 
completely predictable. IT the weather is clear, in 
general, the only safe undoubled position is a hex 
attackable only from one other hex. A single2-3-6is 
easily crushed; a single 4-6-4, 4-6-6, 5-7-4, 5-7-6, 
two or three 2-3-6s, etc. also fails to stop the 3-1. It 
at least prevents automatic elimination (in many 
cases this advantage is turned into a disadvantage 
when a D Elim or exchange results in the loss of ad- 
ditional defense factors). Two4-6-4s, 4-6-6s, 5-7-4s 
or some combination of two units stronger than 
2-3-6s stops t he 3- 1 . Obviously a good player would 
defend in this way. Problems result from 1-1 or 1-2 
attacks, especially adjacent to swamps and/or 
mountains where the units can be "buried from the 
action" with a D Back 2 result. These units invite 
low odds attacks. A single 6-9-6 or 7-10-4 stops the 
3-1 but is even worse off than a stack. Note that the 
large units are more valuable to the Russian player 
than the medium strength units and the low odds at- 
tack risks less German attack factors. I feel that the 
optimal defense involves two 5-7-4s and a 4-6-4, 
This stack can only be attacked at I- 1 by using Pan- 
zer units, quite a risk. Attacking at 1-2 forces Ihe 
German to risk II attack factors rather than 10 
since with 10 an exchange will only kill the two 
5-7-4s. Why cry over one factor? Between expert 
players this one factor gives the Russian player one 
more unit and often times this one extra unit can 
win the game (See positions 16 through 19). 

Counting factors and hexes is more important in 
play-by-mail than in person-to-person timed tour- 
nament play. Counting which German units can get 
where allows the Russian player to defend properly 
with weaker units. For example, if most of the Ger- 
man panzer units arc in the south, a doubled posi- 
tion in the north attackable from only two hexes 
might only need stacked 4-6-4s instead of 5 -7 -4s to 
prevent 3-1 attacks. The 5-7-4s might be needed 
elsewhere. In general, counting factors and hexes 
creates very minor advantages which add up to win 
the game. In person-to-person timed tournament 
play this lactic is rarely employed effectively. It can 
be. The only German units that the Russian player 
must keep track of are the German panzer units. If 
21 or more factors of German panzer units cannot 
reach a position to attack a doubled position at- 
tackable from three hexes, a single 7-10-4 will slop 
the 3-1. As the game progresses, the Russian player 
will usually find himself defending with a weaker 
and weaker line. Saving one unit here and there 
creates very powerful defensive positions in critical 

The Russian player can easily count movement 
factors during snow and, to a lesser extent, mud. 
Without German panzer units in proper position 
doubled positions become harder and harder to at- 
tack. Even in clear weather the Russian player can 
leave a southern position weak to force the German 
to commit his panzers to the south. German units 
on the Black Sea coastline cannot reach the north- 
ern river lines and vise versa. 1 am not advocating 
weakening the line for the sole purpose of forcing 
the German player to move his units to one position 
or another. What I am saying is that if the Russian 

POSITION M: the Siragusa ULick Nole thai Ihe 2*3-6* arc retreated toward Germany and they cannol counterattack back toward Russia 
because the odds would bclessihan 1-6 unless other units were brought into the attack. 5-5-4* or bener are placed behindihe lines lo ensure that 
attacks against the rear areas will force the 2-3-6S [one eliminated or forced back once more inlo the pocket. A cunning German can keep the 
2-3-6s behind [he German lines and in supply via Ihe Kirch Smuts! 

player has to leave a weakened position in his line il 
might be wiser to leave ihe position in the north or 
south than in the middle, all other considerations 
being equal. 

One last tactic, the Siragusa attack is almost 
unknown by even expert players at this poini in 
time. Whoever said ihai STALINGRAD has been 
around so long that nothing new ever appears? The 
Siragusa attack is based on the principle that 2-3-6s 
are valuable delaying units and the Russian player 
needs l hem in the middle game when falling back 
from the Dnepr to theKursk-Kharkov-Stalino line. 
To maximize the use of 2-3-6s as delaying units 
many players place them every four hexes. A Ger- 
man player who utilizes the Siragusa attack can 
make mincemeat of this position especially if the 
Russian army is stretched to the breaking point. 
The idea is to attack the 2-3-6 at 3-1, 4-1, or 
preferably 5-1 and retreat it behind the German line 
intoapockei if a retreat resull is rolled. The 2-3-6 is 
then unavailable as a replacement to the Russian 
player because il is not eliminated, increasing the 
German's tempo. (See position #20). 

The defense against the Siragusa attack is the 
"oblique line" defense. That is, defend neither 
along the grain nor against il. Instead defend at 30" 
angles lo the grain. As an example, if the Dnepr is 
broken at Kiev you should put 2-3-6s on DD23 and 
FF24, no! DD23 and GG23. Admittedly, Dnepro 
Petrovsk can be attacked from three hexes rather 
than two but this problem is not insurmountable. 
(See position #21 for successive use of the "oblique 

Once all the other tactics arc known and used 
correctly by players il may be ihe ractor-and-hex- 
counter that wins the game because he puts a little 
more effort into his play. 

Note that the tactical positions in our illustra- 
tions are "graded", high being best. You can 
evaluate an overall defensive position by evaluating 
the individual positions and assuming thai ceriain 
positions are not defensible. The Russian player 
must withdraw lo a better position or sacrifice weak 
units (usually 2-3-6s and/or some 4-6-4s). Obvi- 
ously, the fewer factors sacrificed the better; Ihe 
less terrain handed the German player, the better 
the defense. But how does the Russian player 
balance these two important strategies? 

As a general rule, the Russian player has an ex- 
cellent position if he sacrifices only one unit (if he 
doesn't sacrifice any units his positional play is 
brilliant and his opponent's play weak). Usually 
two units will be sacrificed a turn; rarely three. If 
four units are sacrificed each turn the Russian 
player will surely lose. 

The rule of thumb for retreats is; don '/ retreat 
more than two hexes in any area unless you are 
retreating to a new river or city line (doubted defen- 
sive positions) or it is the end of the game and you 
are retreating into the Caucasus mountains in the 
southeast corner of the map. You should have a 
very good reason lo break ihis rule. There are only 
so many turns in the game. The fewer hexes you give 
away to the German player the longer you will keep 
him from his objectives. 

POSITION Zlt tlte oblique line Note Ihe defense using the "oblique line" foils [he Siragusa attack since the 2-3-6' s cannot be recreated behind 
German tines. Two successive defensive positions are shown. The first one includes the units shown and the second one include units shown 
moving lo Ihe positions indicated by Ihe arrows. Note (hat x's are hexes where units will be sacrificed in ihe second position. I-E24 should con- 
tain a 4-6-4 and the other two posi lions each contain 2-3-6's. 

I'lisimiii II: PHI) [IKS DEFENSE K \ I IS(,; B* 

Finnish Erorrl: B36: S7-4, 4-6-6; DJG: 4-&-4; 115: 5-7 -4; 1.34: 46-6: J3I: S-7-4. 5-74 

STRENGTHS: SIS. Bre*t, tactically sound 

WEAKNESSES: sacrifices Ihrtre units, tactical but nol strategic Uisposilions frti [urn Iwo 

COMMENTARY: Al Hill Jlance hex F-UU looks weak. You could attack il from ritxes DDI2 and EEH, relrcal the 4-6-4 to CGI 1 am) ad- 

tana'— apparently trapping bolh I hic4-6-4 and 4-6-6. They L L an> however, on the Russian move, rclreat to CGI 2. Attacking BB15 from CX(4lo 

relrcal lo DDI5 or EEI4 (by slacking German units in the rear areas] will be counietatiacked. 

Allacking I lie b-9-b surrounded is a common [rap. forcing [he brum Of the strong German units to the south where Ihcy can be bodied up. 

Whal should you do? First of alt, eliminate ihcltirKsacrlQcnJuililJ. Place both 7-7 -6"s and a6-6-6 on LL12 with three 5-5-4* on MM9 and 
three 4-4-4 \ on M MS wil hOllKf 5-5-4 's and 4-4^1\ in Rumania. If the 6-V-6 docs HOI defend along ihe Hungarian border on turn Iwo I he Prui 
will fall on lutn ihrce. ir the 6-9-6 does defend the bend of ihc Prul will fall. 

The defense appears lo be very strong but il is briule because southern from unils will have to be shifted north to fitl the Lwow and Bresl- 
Ncmunas gaps. 

FLOW OF PLAY: This defense relies on a smelly defensive game on ihe main front wilh sacrifice of 4-6-4s and 2-3-6s when ihcy become 
available in gaps between doubled defensive lines. Hopefully the unils al tacking Ihe Finns and Germans up norlh will arrive in lime lo 
vlrenglhcn Ihc main front before winter. 

Lines of play evolve from the opening sei-up. 
With Tevs' exceptions, the straiegy of German play 
(nol necessarily tactics or which unils are placed 
where) is a reaction to Russian positions, especially 
the opening setup. Once Ihe Russian player places 
his units on the mapboard part of the game is 
predestined. It is the German player who will lake 
advantage of weaknesses, gain momentum, and 
force ihc Russian player to counter his thrusts. And 
don' i think the Russian player can set up an im- 
pregnable defense. He can only minimize the 

Because of its length of frontage and the fact 
that the Russian army isal lull strength, ihe inilial 
setup position is the third strongest defensive line 
on the mapboard. Only the Nemunas-Pripyat 
Marsh Dnestr and Divina-Dnepr lines are stronger. 
Make ihe German fight for his life here but don't 
lose too much yourself. 


As you study [he opening Russian setups that 
follow note the following hews: S18, V19, and 
Bresi. All of these positions are guarded — either by 
direct defense with unils or indirect defense because 
they cannot be reached. All of Ihe experts seem to 
agree. These hexes are very important. 

After analyzing the setups, the entire front line 
will be analyzed as a prelude to developing proper 
lines of play: what you may call grand tactics. 

In the opening phase lines of play can be 
categorized geographically and presented very 
clearly in this way. Defensive positions will be ex- 
plored in four areas: Finland, North (of the 
Pripyal), in front ofand in) the Pripyal, and South 
(of the Pripyal). Once the Dnepr line is breached we 
enter the middle game. From then on the besi way 
to analyze positional play is along the entire front. 
Some players may not agree but 1 fed the end game 
begins once two of the major cities are captured. 
Hopefully these two cities arc Leningrad and 
Moscow. It is much easier to defend Stalingrad in 
the end game than eilher of the other two victory 

Phillies Defense 

Recognized as the first master of STAL- 
INGRAD, George Phillies paved the way for posi- 

tional play by his numerous articles on tactics and 
strategy in the early issues of ihe GENERAL. He 
advocated changing the replacement rate to 4-5-6 
from 4-6-8 to balance ihe game. After many years 
of controversy, the replacement rale was changed. 
However, he also advocated removal of units in- 
volved in an exchange based on defense factors, a 
misinterpretation of the original rules propagated 
by the assumption that the same system was used 
for exchange as earlier published AH games. AH 
did not change this rule and the Phillies defense and 
positional play is based on exchange at defense fac- 
tors. Consequently, expert play has advanced 
somewhat beyond Phillies' suggestions but always 
using them as a base. {See position 22). 

Roberts Defense 

Possibly the slrongest player of his time and still 
a contender for the classics champion of all lime, 
Dave Roberts authored several articles and won 
numerous tournaments prior to Origins 1. Dave 
dropped out of tournamenl play lo work his farm in 
Houlton, Maine and design games during his infre- 
quent spare lime. Being a perfectionist his play is 
excellent bui often appears overly aggressive. He 
knows what unils should be where at each turn to 
win the game (if neither side makes a misplacement 
and the luck is average). Unfortunately, he mosl 
often is not playing an opponent as capable as 
himself and poor luck will ruin the best of calcula- 
tions. Dave is afraid to wail for a mistake and tries 
to create Ihem every turn. His aggressive strategy 
may have mellowed lately for his original winning 
tournament setup (position #23— TAKE WAR- 
SAW) has recently been scrapped and a new setup 
created (position #24.) 

I have never seen Dave Roberis in action as he 
crushes the Germans in Poland, My original 
strategy with the Russians was to attack the Ger- 
mans. I even wrote an article for a spirit master 
magazine on the straiegy back in ihe stone age of 
wargaming. But I quickly dropped ihe strategy as 
the replacement rate dropped to 4-5-6. Dave still 
uses il, allhough infrequently. Here's a description 
of a game against Carl Knabc with Dave as the Rus- 

"The reader to whom my setup seems unlikely 
will probably be absolutely shocked to learn thai il 
is designed lo maximize my chance to capture War- 
saw! Even further shocked that when this match 
was arranged, our Kindly Editor (Don Greenwood) 
stipulated thai I would have to capture Warsaw or 
the game probably wouldn't be used. Not only is 
this long suffering staff required to labor long 
hours for no pay (1973), but we have to accomplish 
the impossible to get our names in print. 

But, fool lhat I am, I'm not discouraged. Ac- 
tually I've been trying this several years in tour- 
naments with considerable success. Whal is re- 
quired is to hold maximum territory, and tempt the 


FtfAFtSAW >■" *>*. t *-**+ '"' J^M BF .nil* 

Finnish Frwfc A39: 4-6-6; D37: 4-66; G34; 4-6-*; J3J: 5^-6 
STRK\t.THS, Brcsi; only sacrifices one unit 

WEAKNESSES; Finnish front is bridle; ihc Russian posiiion could be crippled by km odds attacks if ihe German player gels lucky 
COMMENTARY: Don't lick your chops too fast if you're the German player. Numerous 3-1 's and Jo* odds attacks arc available bui Dave has 
developed this defense (attack) with knowledge of ewvr German uniunoijust what strength of unils I he Germ an has. Consequently only about 
ihree positions could be attacked at 3-1 or belter (besides ihe 2-3-6 on XI 5). And all of these positions must be soaked -off against. The strategy 
behind this defense is unique. The Russian player attempts to win the game early by attacking and crushing the German player. 

Conservative play wiihsclceiive low odds attacks can cripple al least ihe intent of ihis defense (attack \. Thc4-6-4on LLI4can he attacked at 
3-1 without a soak, A G-fi-6 can soak-off against ihe unils on VI6ai 1-6 from Y IS. This allowv ihe right combinaiion of units to kill ihc 2-3-6 
from WI5 and/or X14 and attack the 4^6-4 on XIGatS-l with ihe 5-7-4 attacked at \-2. A 5-7-4 on U I B can be attacked at 3- 1 and ihe other four 
5-7^s on U and VIS can be soaked-off against at 1-3 wilh two5-5-4s. If ihc German player wants io be daring he can aliack CCI4 al 1-1 (but I 
svouldn 1 ! recommend it since the German player will need every available uriii for cum I wo), 

Using these at lacks will eliminate between one and five Russian unils for 3 to 2S) defense factors ( probably 3. 2 Russian units and 14.5 defense 
faclorvl. The German player will lose hei ween (land si* units lor a range of to 29 at lack factors. (Probability indicates 2.7 German units for 
IJj attack factors). 

I'LOW OF PLAY: The Russian player will attack, attack, attack. If the German player positions his units correctly he will ultimately turn the 
tide (with average luck] and go on the attack himself against a much weaker Russian army. 


Position 24: RUBKRTS DF.FLNSF RATI IN (i: 93 STRKNUTHS: Brest 

Finnish From: JJI: 5-7-4: AJ3: 5-7-6: BIT: J (it. G34: 4-6-6 s\ t.sKM sst'v Finnish from is brill It 

COMMF.NTARY: As with che Take Warsaw defense, Davestudies the whole German army in arriving at [his defense, h isobviousty ihebest 
one included here. The S-7 -4 aE fs]NI4is weak- The 2-3-6 at X 16 could he attacked from Y 15 and buried into Germany wiihaDBack result so 
thai (he German units could advance inio \I6- ThcUISand Vlgpositionscould receive the same type nf attack as described in IheTake War- 
saw defense. The same comment applies us CCI4. Bin all in all this defense is almost perfect— fust about ihe besi defense you could develop 
based Lin probability and experience, 

1 would placethc 5-7-4 at JJI2on NN 14 and the 2-3-6 on Xloon X15. With theseehanges I would increase the rat me lor EheKoberesdclcnse 
coys. u h s just about the besi there is. 

FLOW OK PLAY: Sacrifice of a minimum number of units on the main front is Ihe way to play these days. The Finns can be held w ith proper 
play or counterattacked if the German player makes mistakes. Leningrad and maybe even Moscow could fall buE Stalingrad is many, many 
hexes away. Obviously this is ihe strategy many experts find is the winning strategy and the Roberts defense makes it into a work of art. 

German 10 take risks. If he has less than average 
luck it is quite possible that a carefully conducted 
offensive will reach Warsaw, 

June *4I So he knocks off eight of my pieces, 
always discouraging! But after looking over things I 
note that he is extremely weak on the main front, he 
has barely three attacking slacks available. If the at- 
trition ratio had not been extremely high and un- 
favorable to me, 1 think anyone could envision the 
fall of Warsaw in this position. Even as it is I am not 
prepared to give up. If 1 can again induce him to 
take risks and he loses. I may pull it off. 

In consideration of my Editor's stipulation I 
considered an all out offensive againsl Warsaw, 
although normally 1 would automatically convert 

to a defensive here trying to conserve every possible 
unit. Wilh perfect luck 1 could lake Warsaw, bul 
that is obviously absurd to play for. The move given 
helps the relative attrition somewhat and still 
tempts him to moves that accomplish the objective 
for me if he is unlucky. 

/ think it only fair to mention that Car! attacked 
at 2-1 and 1-1 with exchange and DEtim as results in 
that order. The other attacks, except in the U 18 and 
VIS area were also lucky. 

July '41 Well I templed him all right. Again he 
attacks with massive low odds attacks, but not a 
single A Elim! Destroying my 4 cav at 1-2 is par- 
ticularly serious because now 1 can't 3-1 proof the 
Nemunas this turn. I feel that the 2-1 in the south 

Finnish From: J3t: 4-6-6.4-6 6: 136: 4 6-1: 040: 5-7-6 

STRENGTHS: SIS. numerous traps and soak-offs required 
WEAKNESSES: Finnish front is brittle, Brest (?) 

COMMENTARY: Units on LL 14 should be attacked at 5-1 and 1-2 Willi appropriate soaks againsl KKI4, The other alternative of attacking 
NN 14 wilh appropriate soaks is a bit more risky because of Ihe two chances of exchange at 3-1 againsl a doubled 5-7^1. The entire southern al- 
tack could stall if that happened. 

The sacrifice units should be gobbled up at 7-1, 

Two other possibilities exist on the main front. The units at CC14 could be attacked at low odds: one 1-2. two l-2' I-I.a2-I and 1-2, 
etc. The other possibility (which [)asc Roberts recommends] is io anack Brest in spile of ihe required soaks. A 7-7-6 and 6-6-6 attack theunils 
on BB 1 5 and iwo of Ihe 5-7 -4s in Btcst at 1-6, An 8-8-6 attacks Ihe three units on 216 at 1-6. Three S-S-6\ on AA 14, a 5-5-4 and 6-6-6 on 1 1 5, 
and a 7-7-6 on BBI4 attack the 5-7-4 in Brest at 3-t. Appropriate soaks arc made against t_"(_"14 from CC't 5. Noie ihal ihe 3- 1 against Brest is a 
mixed blessing. It lowers Ihe attacking force in Ihe south. It atso severely weakens the German partfer forces assuming that the two I -6s are A 
Mr With those 2 1 factors of armored units gone, the German army is not strong enough to mass a 3-1 against a 7-10-4 in a doubled position 
attackable from three hexes. Of course. Brest will fail since units in Brest would have to soak -off againsl three 8-8 -6' s doubled. But is Ihe city 
worth it? 

Along ihe Finnish from, one of the units ai J3I should be attacked at 3-1 and the other soaked-oi'f against al 1-3 from hex 132. The last Fin- 
nish unit (2-2-4) should be placed on hex F33- 

Fl.OW OF PLAY: The Siragusa defense is designed Io destroy Ihe German through attrition and counterattack along river lines and from 
doubled positions whenever Ihe opportunity presents ilself. The initial setup prescms many traps that have far reaching consequences in Ihe 
(urns to follow. 

was misdireeled. He is risking the bulk of his 
fighting power for an objective of limited utility. If 
he wanted to risk this, 1 think he would have been 
belter off attacking HH14 to link up his fronts. 
HH 16 would have been even betlcr. IT he is going to 
gel the D Elim, I'm glad he goi it where he did." 

77ir? game continued but Dave did not get a 
chance io take Warsaw because of Carl's con- 
tinuous luck. The game was played md until Oc- 
tober '41 when Carl dropped out of sight, and . . . 
apparently wargaming. Even with Carl's early suc- 
cesses Dave's position was pretty strong. The game 
illustrates an important point using the Take War- 
saw strategy: if the German gels lucky and doesn V 
make mistakes you can still retreat and win the 
game that way. 

Siragusa Defense 

It was Paul Siragusa in a tournament in Maine 
who stopped Dave Roberts in the final round. And 
he had ihe Germans! Paul's iwo appearances at 
Origins positioned him well in the standings. His 
best showing occurred at Origins I where he 
finished third. Not afraid to counterauack as the 
Russians or take selective low odds at lacks as the 
Germans, Paul's play is deadly. Ai times he defends 
with trap positions showing he is a successful 
counter puncher. The defense by the Russians in 
Finland is just such a trap. Once on the offense he 
lakes command of ihe situation immediately (see 
position #25). 

At the time of this writing Paul's A.R.E.A. 
rating puts him among the lop 15 players in thai 
pool of postal players. Were he to engage all Ihose 
rated higher on the list in STALINGRAD I have no 
doubi that he would be rated considerably higher. 

link it lik i Defense 

Paul Bakulski only played in one tournament: 
the AH500at Origins 11 which he won (defeating his 
brother, Dave, who came in second — 1 have yel to 
beat Dave and have only won one game as the Rus- 
sians againsl Paul). Paul's play is very conservative 
and calculated and he never loses his cool. 1 guess 
that's the lawyer in him. Feeling the Russian side 
cannot lose with perfect play Paul rarely counterat- 
tacks unless io hold a river line that has been 
breached by a low odds atlack. If he were an 
A.R.E.A. rated player his rating would surely be 
above 1900. His defense (position #26) shows 
reliance on time lested play. He attacks the 
Finns— none oT this hypermodern idea of defend- 
ing up there. 

Huffman Defense 

Phil was Ihe highest rated player (A.R.E.A. 
1 98 1 ) to submit a setup claiming 5 ri^/VG/sM Das 
his best game. He prevents 3-1 's in non-essential 
areas and counterattacks any breaches of river lines 
at 5-1. He does not attack early but crushes any 
bridgeheads on ihe Nemunas. In this way hecannol 
lose the game because Ihe German player is lucky. 
As an attacking Russian you can also "gel lucky" 
negating German luck. Note that his setup shows 
(hat he would rather give 3-l's againsl a 4-6-4 than 
7-1 's against a 2-3-6 in the early turns. Saving a 
2-3-6 for sacrifice in a later turn bul before rein- 
forcements arrive is a hypermodern tactic based on 
ihe idea lhai Ihe 3-1 can yield a D Back 2 or an ex- 
change and a 4-6-4 must be sacrificed later at 7-1 if 
none of the 2-3-6s are available (See position 27). 

Pack wood Defense 

"No one defends Brest like t do" is the best way 
to describe Steve. His A.R.E.A. rating (1896) and 
tournament showing (first al Origins IV) show him 
to be a capable, experienced player. He was 
defeated by Paul Bakulski al Origins It. bul he 
showed his expertise by defeating me with the Ger- 
mans in the semi-finals al Origins IV. Steve 


sacrifices non-essential terrain (position 28) and 
makes sure you do not attack the positions he deems 
essential. The number of units sacrificed and the 
consequences of good German luck make this 
strategy difficult for a beginner. 

/ajici'k Defense 

Jim (A.R.E.A. rating 1865) really knows his 
probabilities. This fact coupled with experience and 
timing make him a formidable opponent, although 
WATERLOO is his first love. His strategy is the op- 
posite of Packwood's. He makes the entire line as 
rigid as possible, forcing the German to commit his 
forces and lose the game by toss of the German 
army through attrition (soak-offs and exchanges 
against doubled positions). See position 29. 1 don't 
think Jim has lost more than one game as the Rus- 
sians. He claims he doesn't know how to play the 
Germans well but he could have fooled me. I'll be 
lucky to split a match with him by mail. 

A n« i nl il l<t Defense 

1 have included my own setup not so much to 
loot my own horn as to be complete. My A.R.E.A. 
rating (1867) and showing at the AH500 (third) give 
me some of the necessary credentials. 1 was taught 
the right way to play by Bakulski, Siragusa, and 
Roberts, but I think I took some of their teachings 
and allowed my explosive nature to show through. 

As far as my play goes, I'll attempt to criticize it 
based on observations made by others. Self 
criticism is probably the hardest criticism, 

Paul Bakulski noted that my strongest play oc- 
curs in the end game closely followed by the open- 
ing. Paul Siragusa remarked that if things fail to go 
the way 1 anticipate, I often tall apart. He is 
especially right about the first tournaments I 

As far as flow of play is concerned I am not 
afraid to counterattack nor retreat when need be. 1 
play best when I have both 7-IO-4s and the 6-9-6 (my 
queen and two rooks). Without them I am at a loss, 
[also know when I'm losing and am not afraid to let 
the die determine the outcome at that point (See 
position 30). 

Other Defenses 

Most of the other setups found in the 
GENERAL arc not quite as good as those shown 
here. Notable exceptions are the Baruth and Gygax 
defenses. The Baruth Defense would have been in- 
cluded here if a 2-.1-6 at BB15 were replaced with a 
4-6-4, making the 6-9-6 at Brest 3-1 proof (Dave 
Roberts found this weakness in thedel'enseafter the 
Series Replay was published and both myself, and 
Paul Bakulski missed it in the commentary). For 
those readers who own most of the issues of the 
GENERAL, I have rated Russian defenses 
previously published therein in Table A (high 
numbers are better; 60-69 fair, 70-79 average, 80-89 


Probably the most controversial topic in Rus- 
sian play that has evolved is what to do against 
Finland. As the replacement rale dropped from 
4-6-8 to 4-5-6 the Russian player became more and 
more aware that conservation of units was his prin- 
ciple worry. He could not throw' away his army with 
tactical blunders and risks and win the game 
because of the vast resources of limitless space and 

The experts disagree. Phillies, Bakulski, 
Zajicek. Packwood, and Huffman attack Finland. 
Roberts, Siragusa, and Angiolillo defend against 
the Finns or wait for the German player to make a 
mistake on that front. How many units do the ex- 
perts place in Finland? Table B illustrates the two 
opposing strategies: 



r f 






Finnish Front: A36; 4-64; B36: 4-6 6; D36i 5-74,4*64; C34: 5-7-4; J31: 4-6-6,4-6-6, 4-6-6 

COMMENTARY:Oneofihe5-7^\oHNN r |4shouldbeatiackedat3-l and the oi her soaked-off against at 1-3, One unit on LL14 should be at- 
tacked at 3-1 and the olhcr al 1-2. The necessary soak-offs should be made against KKI4 from KKI1. 

The German player may also wish io attack hex CCI4 at low (Kids, either l-l or 1-2. 2-3-6* on U18 and XI? will be attacked at 7-1. 

Despite -in' '.-i.'i '! units used io attack Finland, the main front is very strong. Paul's setup is sturdy and conservative, 
[ 1 ( iw OF PLAY: Units in ihe south will immediately pull back behind the Dncstr-Prut line to avoid German low odds attacks. The EE12 to 
Brc^l delcnsccan be maintained for another turn and a sacrifice unit can be placed to the yap at XI 7. The Russian retreats slowly sacrificing as 
few units as possible and "*till preventing 3-ls. With Finland crushed, the victorious Russian forces bolster the mam front. There is very little at- 
tacking other than in the early turns against Hnland. 



Finnish From: t'36: 4-6-4; F35: 5-7-4; B36: 5-7-4; D36: 4-6-6; J3I: 4-6-6, 4-6-6 



COMMENTARY: LL 14 should either be attacked at 3-1 from MMI3 or 5-1 with appropriate soaks against KK 14. < As a matter of Tact ihe4-64 

on J J 12 would be better placed on LL 14— increasing the rating to S9|, Ulft should be attacked at 6- 1 with a 1-5 against V 18. CCI4 invites a S 2. 

Should Ml 1 be attacked? That's, a matter of taste. 

FLOW OF PLAY: The defense is designed to keep the Germans in Poland from linking up with the Germans in Rumania. By positioning units 

at FFI I, if it is nol attacked. HE 1 2 and FFll will be very strong next turn. Units in the south can pull back to the Dnestr-Prui line while units in 

the north hold the Nemunas-FFl 1 line with one sacrifice ;n XI7. 

Phil docs a lot of court terat lac king and can do so as long as he has ihe interior lines by dividing 1 he Germans in Poland from the Germans in 


Finnish Front: A36: 4-6-4; B36: 4-6-4; C36: 5-7-4; D36; 5-74; F35: 4-64; G34; 4-6,-4. J3I: 3-7-4 


WEAKNESSES: sacrifices three units 

COMMENTARY; Getting three units free is always a treat. Units at CC 14 invite two F2s, one with a 4-4-4 and 1-3-4 and theother with a 4-4-4. 

The other positions do not invite low odds attacks. German units should be placed for maximum effect on turn two. 

FLOW OF PLAY: Standard retreat to the Dnestr-Prut line in the south continuing along the Hungarian border to EtT2 to Brest to the 

Nemunas with a sacrifice unr at X! 7. The defense places strong farces at the critical points with sacrifice unit] in between, hoping to channel 

the German attacks and rely on the reinforcements from the Finnish front and Ihe lime limit to win the game. 


Table A 








VI N3 


tactically sound 

allack 7- KM in Bresl at 1-2 
attack 7-IO-4onSI8ai 1-2 


V] N3 



attack 5-7-4 on SIB al 3-1 or 6-9-6 in Brest at 3-1 


tactically sound 

6o V2 Nl 

68 V2 N I 

Schneider Brest can be assaulted but not taken 
Shag ri n taclically sound 























V I I N5 

VI4 N3 


lols of units near SIS lacticallx sound 

SI 8 taclically sound 

Brest t act i catty sound 

Brest SI 8 
tactically sound 

Y16, ZIfi 
taclically sound 

6 lactically sound 

Baruth only one sacrifice 

attack 7- 10-4 in Brest at 1-2 

attack 7-10-4 on SIS at 1-2 

attack 5-7-4 on VI9at 1-2 or 1-1 units on HH!4and H H 1 5 arc not 


attack Iwo 4-6-4's on X16at 3-1 and the other at 1-2 

attack 6-9-6 on SIS al 1-3 with units behind to retreat to U18 
attack 4-6-4 on I. L 14 at 5-1 
attack 7-10-4 in Brest at 1-2 
attack units on CC13 at 1-2 

attack 6-9-6 in Brest at 3-1 
attack7-IO-4onS18at 1-2 
attack 5-7-t on V19 at 1-2 or 1-1 

attack units on SIS with three l-3\ with units behind to retreat to UI8 

units on CC23 should be used to defend the line 

attack 5-7-4's on SIS at two 1-2's with units behind to retreat to U18 

attack 5-7-4's on SISai Iwo 1-3's wilh units behind to retreat to 1118 
attack units on hex CO 3 at 1-2 

attack units on CC13 at 1-2 
attack 7-10-4 in Brest at 1-2 
allack 7-l(M on SIS al 1-2 

aitack 6-9-6 on SIS al 1-3 wilh units behind to retreai to U18 
anacli 7- 104 in Brest at 1-2 
aitack 4-6-4 on LL14al S-l 

attack 6-9-6 in Brest at 3-1 
attack 7-lCMonSIBal 1-2 

attack 5-7-4 on NN14 at 3-1 


Finnish Front: B36; 4-6-6 , 4-6-4; D36; 4-6-6; F35; 4-6-6. 4 6-4; J31: 4-6-6. 5-7-4. 5-7-4 

STRENGTHS: Rumanian front. S18 

WEAKNESSES: sacrifices Ihrec units. Brest 




Units Committed 
5-7s 4-6s 2-3s 

Factors Committed 
Attack Defense 

Bakulski 2 6 — 34 





— J4 





— 32 


Pack wood 



— 31 


Huffman 2 4 26 





— IB 





— 17 





1 16 


COMMENTARY: The three sacrifice unils should be destroyed al 7-1. Avoid Ihelrap of placing armor units on DDI3. With all Ihosc unilsin 
the souih not doing anyihing they could be counierauacked. The 1-2 against Brest is a must. On a D Back 2 retreai the 7-1U-4 to CC13 and 
advance all German units. The position can he counterattacked but Ihe Nemunas would Ihen fall! 

As in Ihe Phil lies defense the problem results next lurn as I he south musl be stnpped of units and Che Germans can advance I hrough Hungary 
and from Rumania. 

FLOW' OF PI. AY: Standard retreat sacrificing units in Ihe gap bul seldom counterailackmg. Hold the key positions expecting the German 
army 10 batter itself oui as Ihe reinforcements from the F innish from and replacements from ihe interior rebuild Ihe Russian armv. 

Position Ui: .\ M. 11 11 11 1 (l DEFENSE RATING: 91 
Finnish Front: D40: 2-3-6: H35: J-7-6; JJI: i-7-l; L31: 4-6-6 
STRENGTHS: Rumanian front. CCI4 from all bul 1-2 
WEAKNESSES: Finnish from is brittle 

German Finnish Defense 

Although this article is mainly an article on Rus- 
sian defense, some mention should be made of Ger- 
man defenses in Finland. The better the German 
defense the longer Russian units will be away from 
the defense of the main front. Three defenses have 
evolved although many variations of these defenses 
are used. 

The Tirsl sample is the Knabe defense. Carl 
places a valuable 6-6-6 in Finland to hold Helsinki 
1 h rough ihe winter. He sacrifices I wo units per I urn 
in the northern clear terrain hexes and hopes lhat 
this will hold the Russians as long as possible. He 
may be right. See position 31. 

COMMENTARY: Attacking the 5-7-4 al 131 results in Ihe loss of Ihe entire Finnish force (if Ihe odds are 3-1 1. Another (rap, a bit more subtle. 
is !he5-7-o. which if attacked at 3-1 will result in the ultimale loss of Ihe entire Finnish force in Ihree turns (especially if Ihe 3-1 is a D Back 2). 

Allack :Iil 4 s .4 .11 I. IS 31 6- 1 vsith a 1-5 soak. Aitack LL 14 al 3-1 and I -2 with a soak against KKI4. Thconty way to aitack CCI4is wilh a 
1-2 wilh 1 1 factors. Whether Ihe attack should be made al all is another question, 

FLOW OF Fl.AYl Russian units will be moving their entire movement factor to reach key hexes in [he 1 urns lhat follow (the 2-3*6 at D40 should 
head south; the 2-3-6 at JJI4 should be on hex XI7, etc. J Consequently. Ihe first few turns should see no couni era Hacking on the main front. 
exccpltoretakeV]9if the opportunity presents iiself. Atiack Ihe Cler ma nsin Fintandif they fall for any ofthelrappositionsor makeami stake. 

Position 31: German armor in Finland 

The second defense, the Clark defense used by 
expert player Ray Clark, his defensive seiup is noi 
included in this article because he changes it at each 
tournament based on his mood thai day) uses three 


stacks of units, tempting the Russian player to at- 
tack at 3- 1 with a soak-off or high odds with a soak- 
off. In either ease the Russian player could lose 
units in an exchange or soak-off. See position 32. 

Position 32: Clark Defense Theemphasis is on causing Russian losses 
with an exchange or low odds soak-off attack. 

The third defense, the Angiolillo defense, forces 
the Russian player to attack from exterior lines 
where he has less mobility. It analyzes the particular 
units involved in the Russian attack, uses only one 
sacrifice unit per turn, and stops 3-1's against stacks 
and a 3-1 against the valuable 5-5-4 that will be the 
final defense in Helsinki. The defense is 
characterized by placing a German 5-5-4 and 3-3-6 
in Finland and sacrificing one delay unit per turn in 
the center of the line. See position 33. 


Position 33: Anglollllu Defense The positions of units are positions 
used by all but Ihe Phillies defense. Units can be repositioned by 
following [he arrows for the Phillies defense. In other (weaker at- 
tack) defenses that use mainly 4-6-4 's Ihe sacrifice unil can be placed 
in the hex north of [he one marked X with proper units 10 prevent 3- 1 
against the stack on hexes marked Y. On the second turn a sacrifice 
unit should be placed on hex Z with a i-3-6 in Helsinki and 3-1 proof 
stack s on hexes marked A . On [ u m [ h ree a sacr l f ice u n il can oc placed 
on hex B with 3. 1 proof positions al Helsinki and hexes marked Cor 
defending on hexes marked D with the 5-5-4 in Helsinki. 

Russian Main front Defense 

Russian defensive positions along the border 
can be characterized along three lines: 1) Finnish 
defense/Main Front attack, 2) Finnish defense/- 
Main Front defense, and 3) Finnish attack/Main 
Front defense. 

The first two strategies use the hypermodern 
defense along the Finnish border. Dave Roberts 
prevents 3-1's or takes Helsinki. Paul Siragusa 
defends with a counterattack potential if J31 is at- 
tacked. I defend with traps set at J31 and H35. 

The other two strategies will be described by ac- 
tual positions with the assumption that the German 
player does not make low odds attacks. Units noted 
with an asterisk are units that are not essential to 
prevent 3- Is and can be used to counterattack or 
plug up other positions if the German player gets 
lucky with low odds attacks. The positions also 
assume that the German player places enough 
strong units in Poland to attack a 7-10-4 in a 
doubled position attackable from three hexes. If the 
German player does not place his forces in this way, 
the necessary units may be taken from the north to 
reinforce the southern positions, making them 
almost impregnable. 

Finnish defense/Main Front defense 

Positions number 34 through 39 illustrate suc- 
cessive positions that are very strong and sacrifice a 
minimum number of units. 

Push ion .'4: JUNE 1941 Finnish defense/Main Front defense. All positions assume D Elira ar 3-1 or belter wilh no low odds attacks. Asterisk 
units are noi needed to prevent 3-1's. 

Position 35: July 1WI Finnish defense/Main Front defense. Note that as the turns go by and the front expands the Russian has less and less 
units wiih which io counterattack (asterisks) which are not needed elsewhere to prevent 3.1 attacks. 

'si-*-*- A 

Posilion Mr. AUGUST 1 94 1 Finnish defense/Main From defense 


Position 37: September 1441 Finnish defense/Main Front defense. The interlocking Russian zones of control arc shown in light blue. Note 
that the little 7th Armored at FFI 3 not only contributes five zones of control 10 the Russian defense, it also funnels any German attempts to 
attack other Russian units al basic odds through DDI6 thus assuring thai the stacks ai CCI9 and FFI7 can beanacked from only one hex. 

Position 38: OCTOBLK 1941 Finnish defense/ Main Front defense. In I he south the 6-9-6 should be defending akinc in the hex if a 3-1 cannot 
occur. Otherwise. Ihe 6-9-6 could defend at fill IS when aM is not available, If all else fails stack the 6-4-6 and a 5-7-4 on HH let with [wo 
5-7-a'son hexes JJITand KK17, This will allow a 3' I but with maximum soaks. The position shown assumes a 3- 1 isnot available againsta5.7-4 
doubled tin hex J J 17. Hex X could be defended with iwo units or (he 6-9-6 forcing a soak against hex JJI7. 

Finnish attack /Main Front defense 

This slrategy is the standard thai has evolved 
with the game. It has been used and reused since the 
early issues of the GENERAL. Because it involves 
fewer Russian units on the main front than the 
previous strategy, the main front is much more brit- 
tle — until the attack force arrives from Finland, like 
the cavalry from the movies of yesteryear. 

At this point we should bring our discussion to a 
close. We have not discussed everything one needs 
to know to become an excellent STALINGRAD 
player, nor even a major fraction of it. However, 
discussions of the standard defense have appeared 
before many limes and any really interested reader 
can find and gain access to them with the recently 
published GENERAL index. Especially recom- 
mended are George Phillies' discussions of the End 
and Middle Game. 


Position J»: NOVEMBER, mi V inn ish defen^/ Main From defense. This position assumcMhelofw of a ?-"?-» in the south in Outobor 3 941. 


Few wargame.s have maintained their 
popularity over the years as well as THIRD 
REICH; the winner of various hobby "Best" 
awards, and to this day the holder of CAM- 
PAIGN magazine's "Best Game of all Time" 
honors- This popularity is even more remarkable 
in light of the game's admittedly poorly developed 
rules. In recognition of the special qualities of this 
title, Avalon Hill has put THIRD REICH through 
the development process again. A team of 
THIRD REICH enthusiasts from all around the 
globe w-as assembled to lest the revised cdiiion. 
Years ol experience with the earlier edition helped 
formulate the revision during a blind playiesl 
session. The results have been more than gratify- 
ing with our most enthusiastic testing response 

THIRD REICH '81 is much more than a 
cleaned up version of the old game, although the 
rules presentation itself is much improved over 
the first edition. Among (he changes is a com- 
pletely revised mapboard with terrain changes 
that have profound effects on the game, while 
being both more functional {no ambiguous hexes} 
and attractive. The scenario cards have been re- 
vised to provide more useful information at the 
player's fingertips and also provide the U.S. and 
French players with their own separate cards. 

However, the biggest change is in the rules 
themselves. Not only are they more complete and 
better organized, but they contain many design 
changes which drastically improve play of the 
game. Paramount among these changes are re- 
visions to the Strategic Warfare rules which bring 
the U-boats under control by 1944 and account 
for the Luftwaffe's absence from the battlefield 
as they are withdrawn to protect the Reich from 
Allied strategic bombing. A free Russian Replace- 
ment rule portrays the influx of Siberian forces at 
the crucial point of the Eastern Front, and major 
changes to the Murmansk Convoy rules make that 
aspect of the game almost a game in its own right. 
A completely new innovation is provided in the 
form of Intelligence and Foreign Aid rules which 
allow more political maneuvering outside the 
purely military sphere of the game. 

THIRD REICH SI consisting of new 
scenario cards, 36 page rulebook, and mourned 
mapboard is available now from Avalon Hill for 
S9.00 plus 10% (20% for Canadian, 30% for 
overseas) postage charges from: The Avalon Hill 
Game Company, 4517 Harford Rd., Baltimore, 
MD 21214. Maryland residents please add 5% 
state sales tax. THIRD REICH 'SI may not be 
available in your stores for some lime due to the 
presence of old stock on the shelves. I f you buy a 
new THIRD REICH game at your store be sure to 
look for the "New Revised 3rd edition" label on 
the cover. 



Bv Michael Turner 

] am always amazed a! the sheer enjoyment I 
allow myself' whenever [ plav WOODEN SHIPS 
AND IRON MEN (WSIM). The game is, oh, 
soooo wonderful and lei me lell you this: when 1 
start to maneuver a fleet of SOLs I can smell the 
salt in the air and feel the spray on my back. 
WSIM is a gamer's game and don't be fooled by 
those guys in the army fatigues bought from the 
local ARMY/NAVY store that keep yelling about 
overruns, and T-34s, and Panzers, and Tigers, and 
all kinds of strange animals direct from the con- 
flict simulations zoo. Just sit back and smoke your 
filtered cigarette and drink your bottle of Perrier 
and begin to tell them of the sound of a 
thunderous broadside and the intricate maneuver- 
ing you just pulled off against none other than 
Nelson himself. Convince them that tVS/M is just 
about one of the greatest wargames on the market. 
Try and gel it through their self-lobotomized 
brains that you can care less about those Russian 
infantry capabilities and that the effect a number 
three Frigate has on an ill-placed Sloop is much 
more authentic, pyrotechnical, and just damn 
more exciting. 

Well, do you have their attention, however 
slight it may be? 


Now listen to this. Even though 1 think WSIM 
is the wargame on the market and that it is, hands 
down, the best wargame Avalon Hill puts out (in 
spite of those RBG rating charts), ] don't really 
think all the possible scenarios have been covered. 

1 know! There have been articles covering just 
about every historical period in which sailing ships 
fought it out among each other. The British, 
French, Italian, Russian, Swedish and Dutch fleets 
are all properly reconstructed and nice scenarios 
are written up. But, one period and one group of 
fighting ships remains latent. 

So . . . 

Let me tell you a story. 

There is a sandy stretch of beach somewhere on 
some lost, forsaken island tossed in an empty 
Caribbean sea. There, among the tall palms, under 
the lonely sand of the island, lies hidden, perhaps, 
the riches and fortune of the pirate. Captain Kidd. 
Yet, the treasure and how it got there is but a small 
part of Kidd's story. What took place during that 
era when piracy look a stranglehold on world sea 
trade is far richer than any treasure. For il is the 
story of men whose lives took a turn which they, in 

many ways, were forced into. A time when the 
pirate was heralded not for his black deeds but for 
the life he managed to carve out for himself. Dur- 
ing a time when it was better to chance becoming a 
pirate and the opulence it entailed, than to live in 
poverty and hunger on the land; fighting for what 
scarce jobs were offered. It was no wonder then, 
that taverns were full of men who secretly idolized 
and talked in hushed voices about the pirates of 
the day. 

Piracy, and especially sea piracy, has been 
around ever since the transportation of valuables 
and wealth tempted men to take from others. The 
Golden Age of piracy occurred from the 1630s to 
the early 1700s. It was during this time thai the 
most famous pirates came into being, They 
scourged the high seas, concentrating on the main 
trading lanes where the wealth gathered and 
floundered in its feeble attempt to thwart capture 
by these lurking nemeses of ihe ocean. The Carib- 
bean, Madagascar, the Red Sea, and Ihe coast of 
the British colonies of America were the most fre- 
quent haunts of pirates. They were indeed cruel 
and heartless just as any criminal should be. Many 
attempted to escape the life of crime they were en- 
during on land by signing on with any pirate vessel 
they could get close to, taking their chances with 
the hangman's noose. 

The history oT pirates is one of personalities. 
The pirate leaders, with their huge egos and cun- 
ning minds, ruled the horde of buccaneers that 
sailed these rough seas (yet, overall, pirate cap- 
tains, if, over some reason or other, displeased 
their crew, could be overthrown and a new pirate 
captain installed in his place). These men usually 
lived lives, prior to their piracy, of wealthy 
gentlemen. A Tew never crossed the line between 
respectable and criminal by becoming privateers, 
hired by the major powers to harrass and destroy 
enemy shipping. And, yet again, others crossed the 
fine line separating privateers and pirates much 
too eagerly. 

The Golden Age of piracy, that period a( time 
when piracy was at its zenith of efficiency and 
quantity, was only a scant 100 years. The 
geographical location of piracy was, theoretically, 
the entire navigable world, yet, the pirates seemed 
to be drawn to only a few, scattered locations. 
These areas, however, were the spokes in a huge 
wheel of commerce and golden treasures duly 
bound for Persian kings and European empires. 

Pirate activity was sparse and underdeveloped 
before the 16O0s and declined under increased 
surveillance between the major powers until, even 
today, it essentially exists in only scattered, 
separated sections of the world. 

Piracy burned its flame in a cascade of dead 
and drunken men, soon to be dimmed by 
honorable, courageous and equitable men. 

Rules play a big part in any wargame and so I 
have decided that it would be inappropriate of me 
not to include some in this article. The following 
rules are meant to help simulate the flow and 
flavor of the many pirate engagements that 
occurred during those 100 years. The reader may 
take it or leave it. 1 have mentioned the rules that I 
think are important in the scenarios that arc to 
follow. These rules should be incorporated 
because the scenarios would tend to become one- 
sided. So, don't write those letters screaming for 
my head because you always lose as the pirate 
player. The rules are meant to balance the 
scenarios because unlike life, wargames should be 
enjoyable and manageable. 


The pirates, although an ungodly collection of 
men, nevertheless, were quite capable oT fighting a 
battle with a worthy opponent (although their 
preference was for unarmed, bulky merchant 
vessels slowed with the weight of gold and silver). 
Pirate ships sometimes would carry as much as 
three times the normal crew and usually more guns, 
captured from vanquished ships and remounted on 
the pirate vessel. However, as much as their zeal 
was in boarding prize ships, il could suddenly 
change if the course of any engagement turned 
against them. And, the fact that a crew could switch 
captains at any time added to this potential situa- 
tion. But, since most of the targets were unarmed 
merchant ships, this problem only came up 
whenever the pirate captain was foolish enough or, 
somehow, [rapped into fighting an overpowering 

After each round of combat between boarding 
parties (i.e. three melee rounds) roll one die. If the 
result is greater than the crew quality value, then a 
crew might become broken and strike. This pro- 
cedure is called the morale check. It is only used by 
the pirate player. 


To determine if a crew has broken and the 
results of such an action, roll on the Morale Chart 


























• no effect 

B broken (add I to die roll only on determination of morale chart 
and noi on morale check) 

S slrike {roll I die and add to crew quality value. This number is the 
remaining crew squares that will not strike. This figure can- 
not exceed the current number of crew squares) 


Although usually pirate captains were little 
more than a simple and convenient way to keep 
pirate ships organized in open sea, some captains 
were revered by their crews and the loss of such a 
pirate leader could effect a crew's ability to con- 
tinue battle. 

To determine i f a pirate leader is killed in battle, 
roll one die after every melee engagement (i.e. every 
three melee rounds). If the number is wrthen refer 
to the Pirate Leader Loss chart: 


riling no. 
























■ no effect 
K kilied 

W wounded (see wound table) 

S stunned (subtract 1 from rating number) 


die consequence 

1 rem ove for on e turn 

2 remove for one turn 
2 remove for two turns 

4 remove for three turns 

5 remove for five turns 

6 dies from wou 

Note; crew quality drops one ^ 
wounded or dead) 

ithoul pirate captain present (either 


Pirate ships and the crew that they transported 
rarely sank a ship to get to any potential treasure 
being carried. Boarding was the only way to capture 
a treasure intact. Consequently, the pirates soon 
became quite professional at this maneuver. To 
simulate this prowess, subtract 1 from any grap- 
pling attempt by a pirate player (note: the pirate 
player can only win a given scenario, unless other- 
wise stated, by boarding). 


A favorite play of the pirate was to approach a 
merchant vessel by flying a friendly flag. The mer- 
chant captain, unaware of the threat, takes no 
action to counter the approaching ship. Only when 
the pirate ship is nearly on top of the victim is the 
Jolly Roger unfurled and hoisted. To simulate this, 
a merchant vessel that is within 15 hexes of a pirate 
ship, cannot use full sails. He may only use full sails 
either the turn after he is fired on or when the pirate 
ship is within three hexes. 


A pirate vessel, in addition to the ruse men- 
tioned above, also was fast and quite maneu- 
verable; usually only a brig or corsair. However, 

with the extra guns and crew, it became a deadly 
threat to any ship in open sea, short of a heavy 

In order to capture a vessel, pirate ships simply 
grappled and boarded a ship, killing the crew (those 
that failed to join up with the pirates) and ransack- 
ing the ship, stripping everything of value and then 
burning the evidence. Yet, sometimes the pirate 
needed only to show his colors to force a terrified 
crew to strike, hoping that this gesture would please 
the pirates enough to be given quarter (it rarely did) . 

Any merchant vessel with a crew quality of 
average or less must roll one die as soon as the pirate 
ship is within six hexes or begins to fire its broad- 
sides. If the number is less then the crew quality 
value, then the crew quality drops one immediately. 
This is attempted only once. Afterwards, play pro- 
ceeds normally. 


The pirate leader's rating follows his name 
which in turn introduces the scenario. 


30 January 1698 

I. Introduction 

Captain William Kidd was probably the least 
understood and most persecuted pirate of his day 

and history has painted a somewhat biased and un- 
true account of Kidd's piracy. The truth seems to 
show Kidd as an inexperienced seaman and this, 
more than anything else Kidd might have done, 
may have cost him his life. Kidd was originally 
hired as a privateer by local New York and British 
authorities. His mission was to capture any ships 
or goods belonging to France, then Britain's 
enemy. Kidd was also commissioned to seize 
pirates operating mostly from Red Sea ports. 

Kidd departed England in December 1695 and 
was arrested and hung upon his return in 1701. 
What transpired between those two fateful dates 
was something short of a disaster. Kidd was har- 
rassed by press gangs, a mutinous crew, numerous 
errors in judgement, indecision over his mission, 
his secret urge to become rich through the simple 
course of piracy, and his compassion to do good. 
Add to this his overbloated ego and the numerous 
poor ships he was capturing and Kidd's voyage 
must have been touch and go throughout. 

On January 30, 1698, Kidd took his most 
fateful and richest prize. The Quedah Merchant 
was a 500 ton merchantman commanded by an 
English captain and owned by Armenian 
businessmen. Outward bound from Bengal, the 
merchantman was crammed full of silks, sugar, 
iron, saltpeter, muslins, guns, and gold. She was 
spotted by the Adventure Galley and pursued in 
open sea off the coast of India, Kidd ran up a 

Scenario 1 


Guns Class Nr. 





ain Kidd 

Hull Qual 


L R 

L R 






Adventure Galley 

34 B 5 






4 4 

2 2 





Quedah Merchant 

18 M 






1 1 

1 1 

33*" • 




• Cr when boarding and Av when firing g 
** has rowing capabilities 
*** turning ability is 1 
•*** Baitte and full sail capabiliiies as per pg. 

Scenario 2 

Name Guns Class Nr. 

2S of H'SIM ruleboolt 

Black beard 

Bow Dir 

Hex Nr. Hull Qual 


L R 

L R 






40 S 5 






3 3 

1 1 







20 S 5 
15 S 5 







2 2 
2 2 

1 1 






■ Cr when boarding and Av when firing guns 

Scenario 3 

Name Guns Class Nr, 


Henry Every 

Nr. Hull Qual 


L R 

1. R 







46 B 5 






5 5 

2 2 






62 M • 






6 6 

- - 

555 "* 



• Turning ability is 

•• When firing guns 
*** Banle sai] speed is 

Scenario 4 


rew is Av and when mclceing crew is Pr 
J and Full sail speed is 5 

Bartholomew Roberts 

Bow Dir 
Guns Class Nr, Hex Nr. Hull Qual Crew 

L R 

L R 






Royal Fonune 

40 F 4 






5 5 






60 F 3 






6 6 

2 2 





French flag, fired across the Quedah Merchant's 
bow and ordered the merchantman's captain to 
come aboard the pirate vessel; whereupon Kidd 
raised an English flag and claimed the vessel as a 
prize. The captain of the captured ship revealed 
that he too was English and Kidd was trapped in 
an awkward position. He decided to ransack the 
merchantman anyway. 

Due to this incident, the Royal East India Co. 
made such a howl over the taking of the Quedah 
Merchant by Kidd, that he was arrested and jailed 
on his return to New York and later hanged. 

II. Prevailing Weather Conditions 

Wind Direction: 5 

Wind Velocity: 4-heavy breeze 

Wind Change: 4 

til. Special Rules 

A. Morale 

B. Pirate Leaders 

C. Boarding 

D. Surprise 

E. Capture 

F. No anchoring allowed 

G. No land hexes 

IV. Special Victory Conditions 

Merchant player must escape off boardedge I, 

between hexes Al and Ki. 


17 November 1718 

I. Introduction 

He was a tall, dark figure of a man with blazing 
eyes that seemed to burn from the bowels of heli. 
His beard was thick and reached to his chest. 
Before he went into battle, Blackbeard would stick 
matches under his hat and in his beard, sending a 
cloud of billowing smoke to cling around his head. 
His appearance was that of some piratical demon. 

Blackbeard, born Edward Teach, was to ter- 
rorize the Carolina coastline, growing more legen- 
dary with each passing day. No other pirate figure 
so closely fitted the public's image of what a pirate 
should be: ruthless, dynamic, desperately deter- 
mined to sail the seas unharrassed. Blackbeard 
would sail up and down the American coast, seek- 
ing prey and helpless ports to pillage. 

In the spring of 1718, Blackbeard blockaded 
Charleston, capturing any vessels heading toward 
the harbor. This wanton disrespect for authority 
quickly sent the temperament of neighboring 
Virginia to the limit. The governor of Virginia, 
Alexander Spotswood, decided to put an end to 
Blackbeard's forays. 

On November 21, 1718, two shallow-draft 
sloops entered Ocracole Inlet where Blackbeard's 
sloop Adventure was holed up. 

Lt. Maynard, in command, approached 
Blackbeard through the shallow waters, slipping 
past numerous sandbars dotting the inlet. Move- 
ment was tedious and slow and at the very start 
both of Maynard 's sloops grounded on sandbars. 
The crews worked the vessels free and Maynard 
continued his awkward maneuvering. Finally, 
Maynard managed to grapple and board 
Blackbeard's ship. The fighting was fierce and 
suddenly Maynard came face-to- face with the 
pirate, both firing at the same time. Blackbeard, a 
night of rum still smoldering in his veins, missed 
while Maynard's shot did not. But, it took a 
number of cutlass strokes and more pistol shot to 
bring Blackbeard down. With their leader dead, 
the remaining pirates threw down their guns and 

II. Prevailing Weather Conditions 

Wind Direction: 5 

Wind Velocity: 3-normal breeze 

Wind Change: 6 

III. Special Rules 

A. Morale 

B. Pirate Leaders 

C. Running aground 

D. Casting the lead 

E. Towing 

F. All light green hexes are considered shallow 
water with a depth of 8 feet 

G. All gray hexes are land 

H. Pirate player may secretly designate five hexes 
as sandbars. Any ships entering into such a hex are 
grounded and must be towed off 

IV. Special Victory Conditions 

Blackbeard wins by defeating British or by suc- 
cessfully exiting out of harbor entrance: row of 
hexes MM22-MM28. 



I. Introduction 

Henry Every seemed to burst on the pirate 
scene in the year of 1694 when, as first mate 
aboard a Bristol ship of 46 guns chartered as a 
privateer by the Spanish, he managed to persuade 
most of the crew that fortune and fame lay not in a 
hard, honest life but in the way of piracy. 

Every renamed his ship the Fancy and set 
course toward Madagascar. For the next two 
years. Every plundered and ravaged with the best 
of them. 

Every's biggest catch was the Mogul treasure 
ship, the Gang-i-Sawai. This vessel was so huge 
and powerful that it almost always sailed with only 
a small escort. The Gang-i-Sawai carried 62 guns 
and some 500 Musketeers as well as 600 
passengers. The Gang-i-Sawai was considered the 
greatest ship in the history of the Mogul's 
dominions. She carried a cargo of some 500,000 
gold and silver pieces. 

Only a week from her destination of Surat in 
India, Every caught up with this small treasure 
fleet. The sheer size must have made Every think 
twice, but, being the pirate he was, Every wasted 
no time in coming alongside the towering sides of 
the Gang-i-Sawai. 

The Mogul vessel opened fire, her guns 
belching out fire and smoke. But, as soon as she 
had fired, one of her guns burst and chaos rippled 
throughout the huge ship. Every took this oppor- 
tunity to let go a well-placed broadside that 
brought down the mainmast of the Indian ship, 
leaving her unmaneuverable in the open sea. 

Soon, the cry and shout of pirates filled the salt 
air as the crew of the Fancy boarded the Gang-i- 
Sawai. The next two hours saw a fierce melee as 
Every's crew attempted to control the decks of the 
Indian ship. The pirate captain lost nearly 20 men 
in the first hour of fighting. However, the Indians 
were no match for the pirates' ferocity. Soon after 
the battle reached its peak, the ship was captured 
and secured. 

II. Prevailing Weather Conditions 
Wind Direction: 6 

Wind Velocity: 3-normal breeze 
Wind Change: 5 
HI. Special Rules 

A. Morale 

B. Pirate Leaders 

C. Boarding 

D. Surprise 

E. Capture 

F. No anchoring allowed 

G. No land hexes 

H. Special boarding rules: the pirate player, due 
to the steep sides of the Mogul ship, can only 
assign 5 OBP crew squares per melee round. 
Each round, then, 5 more OBP are added to 
any remaining OBP from the previous round. 

I. Each time the Indian player fires his broadside, 
roll one die. If a roll of 5 or 6 is thrown, then a 
gun explodes. Mark off one crew square in 
addition to a gun square on the side being 

IV. Special Victory Conditions 

Indian player must exit off boardedge 4, between 

hexes A35 and K35. 


10 February 1722 

I. Introduction 

Bartholomew Roberts quickly became the 
greatest pirate of his day. His exploits did not in- 
clude savage attacks against unsuspecting merchant 
ships, nor was he feared and gossiped about on the 
safety of dry land. In all respects, Roberts was ac- 
tually low-keyed in the pirate world. For all his 
unblackened career, Roberts was only a pirate. Yet, 
the most successful pirate that ever flew the Jolly 

Roberts' success lay in his expert seamanship as 
well as an uncanny knack for being in the right place 
at the right time. His captured ships, more than not, 
were loaded to the gunwales with gold, spice and 
jewels. Roberts, in only a few years of being a 
pirate, had enough wealth to retire to Madagascar 
to live the rest of his life in luxury. 

However , for whatever reason he may have had, 
Roberts failed to elect that avenue and continued 
his piratical career. 

Roberts was born around 1682. His expertise in 
ship handling and knowledge of naval tactics must 
have been gained as an active seaman in some naval 
service, although little is known of his early life. 
However, this expertise was probably the main 
reason why he turned to piracy after some 20 years 
as an honest seaman. 

Setting sail for the first time as a pirate, Roberts 
introduced his name to the world in a storm of fire 
and destruction as he devastated the Portuguese set- 
tlement of Princess Island where the pirate captain 
Howell Davis had been ambushed. It is curious to 
note that revenge for another pirate was Robert's 
first act. 

Roberts patrolled the Brazilian coast as well as 
the Caribbean and went as far north as the New- 
foundland Banks. His exploits did not confine 
themselves only to stray merchant ships. Roberts 
attacked whole fleets of treasure laden vessels as 
well as fortified harbors. And, by the spring of 
1721, Roberts had nearly brought the shipping 
lanes of the Caribbean to a premature closing. 

Due to the sparse hunting that Roberts himself 
induced, the pirate captain decided to set sail for 
Africa, where, he hoped, the pickings would be 
more plentiful. However, Roberts was soon to find 
something more than easy merchant vessels waiting 
for him. 

After months of plundering the Guinea coast, a 
pair of British men-of-war were sent to put a stop 
not only to Roberts but a score of pirates operating 
off the African coast. One of these ships, the HMS 
Swallow under Captain Ogle, finally caught up to 

The Swallow had spent six frustrating months 
searching the West African coast for Roberts. 
Finally, however, Ogle arrived at the port of 
Wlydah only a few days after Roberts had sailed 
away. He was close now, narrowing the gap. At 
early dawn, on 5 February 1722, Ogle brought the 
Swatlowinta a group of inlets and swamps. He was 
surprised to hear gunfire and quickly located 
Roberts and his small fleet of captured ships. 

Continued on Page 44, Column I 


By Jim Davis 

Criticism of WAR A T SEA by realism 
advocates is nothing new, hut Jim Davis ' gripe goes 
beyond the basic simplicity of the game system to 
attack the research itself. As I fie developer for the 
game I can admit that much of what he says is true. 
Keep in mind, however, the conditions under which 
AH first published WAS. From the outset it was 
recognized and advertised as nothing more than a 
simple, fun game which could be sold at a very low 
price as an introductory level wargame to give the 
newcomer a hopefully provocative taste of what 
simulation games were alt about without drowning 
hint in a sea of complexity. Thus, I looked the other 
way when the designer chose to include the Graf 
Zeppelin in his German fleet and allow Italian 
cruisers into the A tlantic. This was, after all, just a 
fast, little game thai was fun to play. My work on it 
had to be squeezed in between issues of the 
GENERAL and development chores for CAESAR 
and the then just beginning SQUAD LEADER 
game. Checking the designer's research would have 
taken lime which, in turn, would have delayed 
publication arid increased the price of the game. 
There seemed little point. It wasn 'I being offered as 
a died-in-t he-wool simulation anyway, and it was, 
with minor tinkering, an enjoyable game in its own 
right. Actually, this entire matter of checking into 
the accuracy of a designer's research has always 
been a sore point with me. If I have to verify his 
research, I might as well do it myself— in which 
case, why do I need him and his royalty? As a 
developer, I 've always assumed my primary duty is 
to polish an already workable design — not to 
redesign it for the guy who gets paid for it. The fact 
that in practice I've usually been disappointed in 
this respect is more a commentary on the plight of 
game developers in this hobby vis a" vis game 
designers, than it is germane to this article. 

Suffice it to say that Mr. Davis' argument has 
merit. Turthermorejiis "variant" isn 'i that far off- 
base. The new ship values which he proposes would 
not result in all that uneven a game if one lakes his 
advice and eliminates the Graf Zeppelin while 
barring Italian cruisers from leaving the Med, You 
could do worse then entering his ship values on the 
backs of your counters and giving it a try. As for the 
main rhetorical question: we have no plans to issue 
an updated version of WAR A TSEA. Of course. I 
said that five years ago about THIRD REICH too. 

If the number of proposed additions and 
modifications is any indication of fan interest, then 
WAR AT SEA must be the most interesting game 
ever conceived. However, there is also the possibility 
thai the large number of variants is an indication 
that the fans think there are many deficiencies in the 
game that should, and could, be corrected. Opin- 

ions on just how much tampering should be done 
with a successful game system range in this case 
from Richard Bauer's proposal for "Tournament 
Level War at Sea" in Vol. 15, No. 5 to Kevin Duke's 
almost hurmorous intimation that you should 
accept and enjoy the game as it is, or Pooh on You 
(Vol. 16, No. 3). After giving my somewhat 
ignorant but nevertheless probably useless com- 
ments on this subject, 1 will proceed with the true 
purpose of this article. You guessed it— another 
variant, or sorts. 

[, of course, take a safe middle course in this 
debate. [ object to Mr. Bauer's complicated move- 
ment phase system Tor one broad, simple reason: it 
alters the basic game system. This is akin to 
rewriting THE RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN so that 
each battle is fought in the next room using 
PANZERBLITZ. If combination supergames 
make your toenails tingle, go ahead. But what you 
end up with is no longer THE RUSSIAN CAM- 

I object to Mr. Duke's AH-is-nol-lo-be- 
queslioned approach for exactly the opposite 
reason. He says that because the basic system works 
and is fun and interesting, the game is perfect. 1 will 
respond by once again hauling out and flogging the 
carcass of thai oft-flogged but still-breathing nag, 
realism. A desire Tor realism in a game system is 
probably the main life-haunting longing that all 
wargamcrs have in common. After all, what is a 
simulation wargame supposed to simulate, if not 

Of course, some of us care less for historical ac- 
curacy than others. In a single paragraph of Mr. 
Duke's historical background information — where 
he gives the history of the Queen Elizabeth 
class — he says: 1) "all but Valiant were at Jutland" 
2) they were "modernized into faster ships between 
the wars" 3) the Queen Elizabeth was "too far 
gone" to be raised and repaired after she was mined 
by Italian frogmen. In fact: 1) it was the Queen 
Elizabeth that missed Jutland because of a refit 2) 
three of the class (QE, Valiant. Warspite) were 
modernized in the late '3G's, but were still '/i-knot 
slower than when new 3) the QE was refloated and 
sent to the U.S. for repairs, and rejoined the Royal 
Navy in the middle of 1943. It is easy to see why Mr. 
Duke cares so little for historical accuracy in a 

Thai line in the introduction lo W AS about the 
game's being a simple introduction to wargaming 
sounds like a convenienl dodge. The same 
disclaimer appears in Iheintro lo ihe VITP rules, so 
1 feel justified in discounting it in the present discus- 
sion. My topic is not the complexity of ihe game 
system, bul the completeness of its components and 
rules within that system. The additional ships and 

few rules changes proposed for WAS do little to 
complicate the game or lengthen playing time ex- 
cept give the Allied player more ships to keep up 
with. I ihink, apparently in common wiih most of 
those who have written variants, thai it is easy to in- 
crease the realism of WAS without changing the 
basic game at all. Look ai what Richard Hamblen 
did with VITP. Eveept for the two-phase movement 
system (necessitated by ihe vast distances lo be 
covered in ihe Pacific, and not even easily adapt- 
able to the Atlantic, much less necessary), ihe basic 
game system is thai of WAS. Bul we haven'i seen a 
plethora of varianis suggested for VITP. nor heard 
a chorus of grumblings about lack of realism. The 
game is exciting and interesting (i.e., fun), and 
realislic as far as the basic system allows. It is the 
general consensus lhat VITP is a much belter game 
than WAS, and Ihe only major difference is the 
degree of realism. I have no objection to the facl 
that battles are fought in WAS (as in VITP) be- 
tween all the ships in a huge area during a 5-monlh 
turn. This is a necessary concession in a campaign- 
level game of this sort, However, it grows neltles 
under my tongue to sec those Italian cruisers sail 
merrily past Gibraltar on any sunny Sunday after- 
noon Ihey choose. Why is this rule in the game? Not 
only does it not help the balance of the game, it 
tends to increase the imbalance in favor or the Axis. 
In Victory at Sea, ihe Japanese aren't allowed 
to pass through the Panama Canal and bombard 
Pensacola jusl because they control ihe Hawaiian 
Islands for one turn. And why is the Graf Zeppelin 
included in WAS, while dozens of ships which ac- 
lually look part in the war in the Allamic are nol in- 
cluded? No one has had to write a variant lo VITF 
including the Dulch or Australian navies, because 
they are already there. If realism is good enough for 
VITP, and is even a strong asset, why not WASt 

My purpose here is not lo lambast the 
developers of WAS. (After all, who do I suppose is 
responsible for deciding whether or nol ihis article 
gets published?) I wish, rather, to suggest that ihere 
is room for improvement in WAS, even given ihe 
basic concessions lhal are necessary for it, as there 
are concessions necessary for any wargame system. 
1 think lhal is what we "realism hounds" look for in 
a wargame, as opposed to a simulation — ihe max- 
imum amount of realism within the confines of a 
given framework. We don't care how unrealistic the 
victory conditions for a scenario in SQUAD 
LEADER, as long as ihey realistically reflecl the 
relative, proportionate capabilities of the opposing 
forces. Inverted, and translated to WAS, this same 
idea comes out as "set the game up as realistically as 
possible, give the Allies the 70 or 80 ships they 
actually had, and make up for the imbalance with 

the victory conditions," i.e., with the POC. Once 
you include the French navy and the Black Sea, 
restrict the Italians to the Mediterranean, etc., the 
game is not much more complicated or time- 
consuming, and, to me at least, is considerably 
more fun. This, to me, is Richard Hamblen's great 
achievement in VITP — realism to the max, given 
the limits of the system he had chosen. 

Incidentally, even with all this, 1 still don't think 
it's a very realistic system, but the alternative 
(Rising Sun?) is about to turn some of the best 
minds in the business into seaboltom sludge, so I'm 
content. This brings up my last defense for demand- 
ing more realism in WAS. It is the only campaign- 
level Batlle-of-the-Allantic game. We have every 
right to ask that it be at least as realistic as VITP. 
After all, how long do you suppose it will be before 
we see the Atlantic version of RISING SUN? How 
about it, AH, would a revised, more realistic WAS 
'8! lose you that much money? 


My last area of discontent with the realism in 
WAS, the only one not yet covered by a variant, is 
the assignment of combat values to the ship 
counters. I realize this is an area that is, and must 
be, considered taboo to tamper with. After all, once 
the edicts of the Great Wargame Makers in the sky, 
or in Baltimore, are questioned, then the unit values 
are open to argument by any neanderthal with the 
price of a game, and chaos reigns. This is why 1 
offer detailed evidence to back my case. 

At the beginning of his article, Kevin Duke said 
that a major attraction of WAS is that the counters 
you control represent many famous ships. I agree. 
I've spent many an hour, in my den, looking out 
from theflagbridgeof a majestic warship. This just 
makes it all the more maddening when an oppo- 
nent's flagship runs rings around mine just because 
someone assigned it a speed factor of 7, when in 
reality my ship was faster. 

Of the three ship values, the gunnery factor 
(GF) is the most objective and therefore the most 
easily evaluated. Speed factors <SF) are a little 
trickier because of the many speed figures available 
on the ships (design speed, trial speed, full load trial 
speed, etc., ad nauseum), and because changing the 
speed of a whole class of ships could strongly affect 
the outcome of the game. The defensive value is so 
subjective, and subject to so many valid considera- 
tions, that I will not mention it again. 


A single gunnery factor has been questioned 
before (by Kurt Kimball, "Realistic Victory at 
Sea," Vol. 15, No. 6) in an excellent article, but 
only rather tentatively. 1 have more. Unlike Mr. 
Kimball's, my purpose is to nil-pick. 

In his designer's feature article on VITP, 
Richard Hamblen set forth the criteria for GFs, 
which he says are the same as in WAS. They are: 




9 X 18. 1" guns 

i^B 5 

8 or 9 16" guns 


Stir more 14" or 15" guns 

6x 15", 9 to 12 x 12",or9x 11" 

I S " guns or special cases 

Thus it is plain for all to see that Mr. Kimball was 
totally justified in objecting to the old Italian battle- 
ships' (10 x 12.6" guns) being given a GF of 4. 
They don't have 14 "or 15 "guns, and plainly should 

be 3s. 1 found not one GF discrepancy in VITP. 
However, WAS is another matter, mostly the 
counters added in a variant — ironically enough, 
since these variants were added mainly in the name 
of realism. Among the transgressors are the above- 
mentioned Italian BBs. The other problem area is 
the French navy, suggested in a variant article by 
Dr. Joseph Connolly (Vol. 14, No. 3). To begin 
with, the Richelieu had 8 x 15" guns and should 
clearly be demoted to a 4 from that optimistic 5. 
Her sister ship, Jean Bart, was forced to sail before 
being completed, with only four of her 1 5 " guns in- 
stalled. Half the firepower of a 4 makes her a 2; 
also, she can't be a 3 because that category is plainly 
reserved for ships with at least six 15 " guns. Sorry, 
Jean. Next come the Dunkerque and Strasbourg, 
which are assigned a GF of 4. Each of these ships 
carried 8 x 13" guns, thus not qualifying for a 4 
(again, no 14 "or 15 "guns), but fitting in nicely with 
the 3s. Finally, the Ocean was a demilitarized train- 
ing ship and should no more be included in the game 
than Utah or Iron Duke. Incidentally, the correct 
spelling is Courbet, with only one "r". 


In the same article on VITP, Richard Hamblen 
lists the criteria for the speed factors in that game as 
follows: "Speed factors are assigned as in WAS, ex- 
cept that the factors represent marginally greater 
speeds in K/TP because of the greater distances that 
had to be covered in the Pacific." 




34.5 knots 


30 knots 



25 knots 

I lake this to mean that a ship had to be able to 
reach 34.5 knots in order to be assigned a SF of 8. 
The bit about "marginally greater speed," I take to 
mean that to earn an 8 in WAS, a ship had to reach 
only, say, 34 knots, a "margin" of '/i-knol (25% of 
the difference in factors is a pretty hefty margin), or 
even 33.5 knots (50% margin!), which is apparently 
closer to actuality, because, for example, Graf Zep- 
pelin would probably never have reached 34 knots, 
even on trials, but is given a SF of 8. I'll be 
generous. Therefore: 



33.5 knots 



29 knots 

|H 26.5 knots 


24 knots 

■■■■[ knots 

As 1 stated above, the major difficulty in assign- 
ing the SF is deciding which speed figure, of all 
those available, to use for any given ship. For exam- 
ple, a ship's design speed might be 33 knots. On 
speed trials, however, the ship could be timed at 
34. S knots. They've raised it from a 7 to an 8! 


"Hurray for the shipbuilders!" you say? Not 
necessarily. Speed trials are run when a ship is 
brand new, the machinery in tip-top shape, the sea 
calm, the hull clean, and the ship at lightest possible 
displacement (no provisions, no ammo, just 
enough Tuel to run the trials, etc.). One country 
even ran some trials before the gun turrets were in- 
stalled, cutting as much as 20% off the ships' 
displacements! As a general rule of thumb, British 
and German warships would just reach or barely ex- 
ceed (by Vi -knot or so) their design speed on trials, 
while American, Italian, and Japanese ships would 
regularly exceed their design speeds by I Vi-1 knots 
or more when or trials. But it is a mistake to base a 
ship's SF on trial speeds. By the time the ships were 
fully loaded and ready for battle, the trial speed was 
nothing more than a number on a sheet of paper. 
Again, as a general rule of thumb, British, German, 
and Italian ships (with the notable exceptions of the 
King George V class and Bismarck) tended to fall 
short of their design speeds once they were fully 
loaded, while an American or Japanese ship's 
design speed was pretty much the top speed it could 
be expected to sustain under combat conditions. 
For example, the Es^jr-class carriers were designed 
for 33 knots, and they could sustain 33 knots at full 
load for hours. On the other hand, the Littorio was 
designed for 30 knots, had a trial speed of 31.4 
knots, but under battle conditions was hard-pressed 
to reach 29 knots for even a minute or two. 

Confusing, you say? Yes, and unnecessarily so. 
For the purposes of a wargame, as for the purposes 
of the real thing, there is only one speed figure that 
matters — the actual speed that a ship could sustain 
at full load under batlleconditions at the time that it 
was fighting, what the British call "seagoing 
speed." To illustrate, I'll launch right in with what 
may be my most cursed and derided speed-change 
proposal, the Hood. The "Mighty 'ood" was 
designed in 1915 as a 33-knot battlecruiser, that 
being at the time an unbelieveable speed for a 
capital ship, and plenty of speed to earn her a SF of 
7 in WAS. However, after the Battle of Jutland, in 
which three British battlecruiscrs exploded and 
sank in minutes (sound familiar?), the design was 
changed, the armor doubled, and the design speed 
dropped to 31 knots. On trials in 1920 she reached 
32.07 knots, still enough for a 7 if you're going by 
trial speeds. However, by 1940 (the year she was 
originally supposed to be retired) the Hood had 
gone twenty years without a major rebuilding. Her 
machinery was literally falling apart. On top of 
that, over the years 2000-3000 tons of new equip- 
ment had been added topside. Maximum speed — 
28.5 knots, and that could not be sustained. In the 
engagement with the Bismarck, the Prince of Wales 
had to keep its speed down to the Hood's max- 
imum. A quick look at the speed chart shows that 
this 28-knot maximum sustained speed does not 
even earn Wciorf a SF of 6, much less 7. So Hood ha 
4-4-5 , "What ! " you cry . "Outrageous ! "you scoff. 
"Take away a key piece in my Allied strategy for 
H645?" My reply is simple: why base the counters 





Hood 4-4-5 

Victorious 0-2-6 

Guilio Cesare 3-3-5 

Independence 0-2-6 

Repulse 3-3-5 

Formidable 0-2-6 

Conte di Cavour 3-3-5 

Princeton 0-2-6 

Prince of Wales 4-5-5 

Indomitable 0-2-6 

Andria Doria 3-3-5 

Belleau Wood 0-2-6 

King George V 4-5-5 

Kent 1-1-6 

Caio Duilto 3-3-5 

Cowpens 0-2-6 

Duke of York 4-5-5 

Berwick 1-1-6 


Monterey 0-2-6 

Anson 4-5-5 

Cornwall 1-1-6 

Junyo 1-2-3 

Bataan 0-2-6 

Howe 4-5-5 

Cumberland 1-1-6 

Hiyo 1-2-3 

Cabot 0-2-6 

Malaya 4-4-3 

Suffolk 1-1-6 


Langiey (11) 0-2-6 

Barham 4-4-3 

Dunkerque 3-3-6 

San Jacinto 0-2-6 

Courageous 1-0-5 

Strasbourg 3-3-6 


Glorious 1-0-5 

Richelieu 4-6-6 

Australia 1-1-6 

Eagle 1-2-3 

Jean Ban 2-6-6 

Canberra 1-1-6 

Illustrious 0-2-6 

Beam 0-1-3 








tin l.isl 




K. Combs 





W. Dobson 





R. Chiang 





D. Cornell 





D. Garbutl 


2161 EGK 



T. Oleson 





P. Kemp 





D. Burdkk 





J. Kreuj: 


2001 FFK 



P. Siragusa 





D. Barker 





J, Beard 





F. Freeman 





M. Sincavage 





L. Newbury 





R. Leach 





L Kelly 





B. Sinigaglio 


1903 DEE 



3. Zajicek 





C. Olson 





K. Blanch 





B. Downing 





G. Charbonneau 3 




F. Preissle 





W. Scon 


1 794HFN 



N. Markevich 





D. Greenwood 





S. Martin 


1775 EG! 



E. Miller 





F. Omstcin 





D. Munsell 





F. Sebastian 





t. LeBouf 





C. Braun 





R. Holfman 





W. Knapp 





P. Dobson 





R. Kolvick 





W. Letun 





T. Baruth 




N. Cromartie 





R. Zajac 





D. McCarty 





B. Salvatore 





R. Phelps 





B. Remsburg 





R. Rowley 





M. Russel 





B. Hayden 





D. Ticrney 






After dozens of requests for it, we've Finally 
compiled an index for THE GENERAL. Bui 

what an index! Virtually everything that has ap- 
peared in the first 16 volumes of THEGENERAl. 
is referenced and cross referenced ad infinitum. 

The main subject mailer is, of course, a 
chronological listing of gaming articles by subject 
matict with specific author, volume, and page 
references. There is, however, much more in- 
cluding indices for contests, RBGs, philosophies, 
covers, letters, and miscellaneous articles. 

The index also includes a tunning commentary 
on the development of Ihe A valor Hill Game Co, 
from 1952 to the present. This "Time Line" is a 
wealth oT information for the trivia buff or 
serious AH devotee and includes a complete 
listing of Avalon Hill titles in the order of their 
publication, complete with design/ development 
credit and miscellaneous information. 

This 20 page, 8 " x II" booklet is yours for 
$4.50 plus liie usual postage charges direct from 
Avalon Hill at 4517 Harford Rd., Baltimore. MD 
21214. Maryland residents please add 5°'o state 
Slk's lav. 

on real ships at all, if you are not going to show (fie 
ships' true capabilities? If you want totally abstract 
playing pieces, play chess. 

While I have my heel on the British, I'll grind a 
little longer. The Renown and Repulse were three 
years older than Hood and their design speed was a 
full knot slower than Hood's. Renown underwent a 
complete rebuilding in 1939-40, and emerged with a 
seagoing speed of just under 30 knots— she can 
keep her SF of 6. Repulse, however, was not rebuilt. 
At the lime of her historic but ignominious demise, 
she could not, by hook or crook, exceed 28 knots, 
much less 29. Repulse; 3-3-5 

Let's face it, admirals of the Royal Navy, our 
ship designers did not place a premium on speed. 

Which brings us to the King George l-'class. As 1 
have said, these were among the few British ships 
whose seagoing speed exceeded their design speed. 
That design speed, however, was only 27.5 knots, 
the slowest of any battleship designed and built 
after 1922, with ihe exception of the Yamato-cl&ss 
behemoths (27 knots). Even on trials, only two of 
the class reached 29 knots. Seagoing speeds ranged 
from 28—28.5 knots. Prince of Wales. Duke of 
York, King George V, Anson, Howe: 4-5-5 

Last British battleships under the gun— from 
me, at least— are the Queen Elizabeth class. This 
should surprise no one. After all, these ships fought 
at Jutland. But, as 1 mentioned above, three of ihe 
five (QE. Valiant, War spite) were rebuilt in ihe 
early years of ihe war and were fairly well able to 
sustain their design speed. Malaya and Barham 
were not rebuilt, and literally could not exceed 21 
knots in 1940. Malaya, liar ham: 4-4-3 

Most ofthe older British carriers were converted 
from battleships or baltlecruisers which were 
designed during, or even before. World War I, so 
they share the same problem as the old battleships 

Courageous, Glorious: 1-0-5 By 1939, neither 
could exceed 28 knots. 

Eagle: 1-2-3 Actually, by the time the war 
started. Eagle was incapable of even the 2 1 knots re- 
quired for a SF of 3. But it seems cruel and unusual 
punishment to condemn a ship to the virtual im- 
mobility, and thus uselessness, of a 2. 

The SF of 7 given to the Illustrious class is a real 
puzzle. The Hood's 7 is understandable because 
there are figures available (1920 speed trials) which 
show the Hood capable, if the figures are accepted 
uncritically. But not the Illustrious class. Their 
design speed was 30.5 knois. Even on trials, not one 
of the class reached 31 knots. Why the 7? 
Illustrious, Victorious, Indomitable. Formidable: 

Royal Navy cruiser policy between the wars was 
loo complicated to summarize here, but the result 
was a large number of cruisers not quite as large, 
fast, or well-armed as their less numerous foreign 
contemporaries. The only way this affects WAS is 
in the Kent class of heavy cruisers. Not only was 
their design speed only 31.5 knots, but they were, 
again, among the oldest of Great Britain's "Treaty 
Cruisers." Kent, Berwick, Cornwall, Cumberland, 
Suffolk, Australia, Canberra: 1-1-6 

You may relax the upper lip, Britisher. My blitz 
is concluded. Better warn the French, though . . . , 

Dunkerque, Strasbourg: 3-3-6 Neither ship ex- 
ceeded 30.5 knots, even on trials. Seagoing speed 
was just barely enough to retain a SF of 6. 

Richelieu, Jean Bart: 4<2)-6-6 Quite a drop from 
5-6-7, Design speed was 30 knots, seagoing speed 
better at 30.5-31, but that's still not 31.5, which, 
remember, is generously low. 

The teal kicker is Bearn. a converted WW I 
dreadnought very similar to Eagle. With a design 
speed of only 21.5 knots, she also had constant 
engine trouble, and never managed better than 18 
knots. That's a far cry from the SF of 6 on the 
counter! Were those French counters, by any 

chance, designed early Sunday A.M. after a late 
Saturday P.M. party thrown by a Frenchman? 
fleam.- 0-1-3 

You may have noticed that 1 have not taken the 
hatchet to any axis ships. Well, I'm not going to. 
Except for the already-handless Italian battleships, 
the axis ships' combat factors all appear acceptable. 
This is possibly due to the faci that almost all of the 
axis ships were brand new, and their actual per- 
formance was still in line with the more readily 
discoverable design and trial performance figures. 


As I have said, VITP is much more realistic all 
around, including -the combat factors. The only 
errors in SF were either imported from WAS (the 
British Far Eastern Fleet) or are found on aircraft 
carriers. The erring British ships, already lambasted 
above, are Prince of Wales. Repulse, Cornwall, 
Formidable, Indomitable. Illustrious, and 
Victorious, plus Australia and Canberra of the 

For the Japanese there are Junyo and Hiyo. 
These two carriers were converted from passenger 
liners. Their machinery, a matching of the original 
turbines with destroyer boilers, had major prob- 
lems. Design speed was 25.5 knots, but they never 
did better than 22.5. Lowering the SF to 3 will also 
reflect their frequent breakdowns; all during 1942 
and '43 they operated together as a carrier 
squadron, but during this time they did not fight 
together in a single operation. One or the other 
always had to turn back because of engine trouble! 
Junyo, Hiyo: 1-2-3 

Last, but far from least, I come io the 
Americans. The only problem here {besides the 
American counters in WAS, which were corrected 
in VITP) is the Independence class of light carriers. 
Facing a dire shortage of carriers in 1942, the U.S. 
Navy had to fill the gap be lore the new fleet carriers 
were ready, so they converted nine light cruisers 
then under construction. The conversions kept the 
machinery orthe33-knot cruisers, but increased the 
tonnage by 40%. The best seagoing speed of any of 
the class was 31.6 knots, a full knot short of the 32.5 
needed for a SF of 7 in VITP. Independence, 
Princeton, Bel lean Wood, Cowpens, Monterey, 
Bataan, Cabot, Langley II. and San Jacinto: 0-2-6 


If you don't care to make use ofthe above pro- 
posals, it will be nothing new. 1 have never run into 
a WA S opponent who uses more than one or two of 
the rules proposed in earlier variant articles. And do 
you think the likes of Don Greenwood and Co. are 
going to throw away long years of proven WAS 
strategy? Surely you jest! 

It could be argued that the net effect of mycom- 
bat factor changes is to increase the imbalance of 
the game in favor of the Axis, because most of what 
I did shackled the Royal Navy. This is true, except 
that these factor changes should be only one part or 
a large overall reassessment of WAS. Along with 
these changes should go a collation and stand- 
ardization of the numerous valuable rules proposed 
in earlier variants, many of which rules dealt with 
depriving the Axis of artificial advantages they are 
now granted, such as free and unhindered use of the 
English Channel, the complete absence of a large 
portion of the Royal Navy, etc. I repeal my plea fot 
a new and improved WAS. It is the only campaign- 
level Battle of the Atlantic game on the market; we 
the gaming public deserve the best possible such 
game. But more importantly, it is basically a vety 
good game, but is seriously marred by unnecessary 
lack of realism. The game itself deserves these im- 
provements. WAS '81, where are you? 



or CRESCENDO OF IRONY— A Humorous Look at the Men Behind the Counters 

by Sieve Powlesland 

To many casual players of SQUAD LEADER 
(if there is such a thing as a casual SL player) Steve 
Powlesland "s punch lines may seem too real to be 
humorous. Despite the basic simplicity of the SL 
game system, the depth of the detail portrayed in its 
never ending series of gametics and accompanying 
ratebooks is more than the uninitiated can com- 
prehend. Be you a veteran SL grognard or a relative 
neophyte you should find a few genuine knee stop- 
pers In the satire which follows. 

The infantry squad is strung out along a gully 
among the trees, waiting for an order to move out 
into the open. No one looks forward to that order, 
but everyone expected it. Their objective, a two- 
story stone building on the edge of town, is also 
hometoa jerry machine gun. The two or three fran- 
tic krauts who manned the weapon are obviously 
alert and jumpy. The shredded sparrow carcass on 
the road is merely one illustration of that. Not bad 
shooting for krauts. Probably a 9-1, maybe even a 
9-2 leader up there. 

The Sarge peers over the gully edge at the 
building and grinds his teeth even tighter on the stub 
of the cigar hanging from his mouth. None of the 
boys in his squad could remember the cigar ever 
being lit. It is the same one the Sarge was chewing 
on when they hit the beach at Normandy. The Irish 
noncom, Corporal Radio O" Really, swore the 
Sarge never took it out, even in the sack. 

"Get on up here. Meatball," ihe Sarge growls. 

"Jussaminute," replies Private R. "Meatball" 
Andy Spaghetti, the squad's obligatory citizen of 
Italian extraction. According to rule 3 58. 26, havi ng 
an Italian in an American squad was necessary to 
justify an 8-0 leader. Spaghetti had no scruples 
about rubbing this in— "My uncle is da personal 
undertaker for da Senator from New Jersey" is how 
he jokingly explained this bizarre rule to his bud- 
dies. For the Sarge he only had a special swagger. 
The Sarge threatened to kill Meatball at least once a 
week, but could never get better than a "10" on the 
"Is Anybody Looking" Table. 

"Whatdoyawant. Sarge?" Spaghetti asks, after 
finishing his naturecall on a nearby tree, and flop- 
ping down beside the Sarge. He adds a sneer and 
fixes his dark eyes on the squad leader. 

The Sarge ignores the provocations. Instead he 
points at the building. "We gotta knock out that 
jerry nest," he says. "We know where it is, but we 
don't know what else might be hiding around that 
building. 1 need a scout — someone real slippery— to 
work his way over and see if there's anything on the 
first floor." 

"What are ya talking about?" Spaghetti replies, 
with some heat . " Ain 'I ya seen da way dose guys are 
shootin'? I mean, didja see what dey did to that 

"Yeah, I . . ." 

"Well, didja see the way they harvested that 
wheat field over there?" 

"Yeah, I . . ." 

"Well, how about the way they carved their 
initials in thai tree over there— with bullets?" 

"So what?" 

"So what?" Spaghetti repeats, almost scream- 
ing. "1 think they got Rommel himself in dere . . . 
at least a !0-3, directing fire. Anyone setting foot on 
that fork in the road is going to be taking both direc- 
tions at once." 

"You aren't scared, are you. Meatball?" the 
Sarge taunts. 

"Whatdayamean, scared? I just don't think 
you'll get a low enough roll for a scout. Still, what 
makes you think anything is over there besides the 
machine gun?" 

"Are you blind as well as yellow?" The Sarge 
nods toward [he building. "Can't you see that big 
question mark sitting in the first floor?" 

"Probably a dummy," 

"You would know," the Sarge observes. "Why 
would the krauts be using one of those for a dummy, 
here? I think it's hiding something," 

"Oh yeah. Then who better than you to go find 
it for us?" the Sarge suggests. "Go back to your 
tree. Meatball. " " By the way ," he calls as Spaghet - 
ti slithers away, "1 saw what you were doing to that 
tree. Don't you know a private ain't allowed to do 
that unless he rolls doubles first?" 

"You can't intimidate me, Sarge. I know the 
rules. I can do that any time 1 want, on a tree or the 
side of a building. 1 gotta roll doubles only if 1 want 
to do it in an entrenchment or a bunker." 

"All right, you foxhole lawyer. I was just testing 
you. Now, get outia my sight. Hey, O'Really!" 

"Yo, Sarge." 

"Come over here." 

Corporal O'Really is the philosopher of the 
squad. Everyone knew that when the war was over 
he would either become a famous writer or take 
over his father's butcher shop in Boston. To 
O'Really, it was the same thing either way. The 
skinny, red-haired noncom crouches alongside the 
Sarge. "What is it?" 

"Listen, O'Really . . . we've got to find some 
way into that building, without getting (he squad 
routed back to Dover." 

O'Really shakes his head. "Tough. Anyone 
moving in the open across the road would be broken 
if the krauts just spit in the right direction. What do 
you think about going in under a smoke cover?" 

"Smoke? Do you think this squad is a bunch of 
assault engineers? Who's got smoke?" 

O'Really shrugs. "Maybe the lieutenant does." 

The Sarge stifles a guffaw and glances back at 
Lt. Cart Bored, the nominal platoon leader, who is 
absorbed at the moment in playing with his radio. 
Ever since Cherbourg, the lieutenant has been 
promising the boys in his platoon that he had per- 
sonal influence with a 105mm artillery baltery. But 
somehow he'd never been able to get through to 
them on his radio. 

The Sarge shakes his head. "1 don't Ihink the 
lieutenant has any smoke." Unless it's between his 
ears, he adds to himself. A 6+ I leader if I ever saw 
one. Wouldn't allow him in a tobacco shop, much 
less let him carry smoke grenades. 

"What are we going to do then?" the corporal 
asks, "You aren't thinking of a direct assault, are 

The Sarge chomps down on his cigar. "Maybe. 
Get Beerstein up here, will ya." 

In a couple of minutes, the Sarge and the cor- 
poral are joined by Private H olden A. Beerstein, a 
man of unusual talents. Beerstein had gotten into 
the squad after regulations adopted by the Equal 
Employment Opportunity Commission, upheld in 
a recent court decision, had specified that a mixed 
ethnic squad would be permitted to raise its morale 
level by one. Spaghetti had been heard to proclaim 
that the morale level dropped by two at the same 
time. But no one suggested they fight government 
regulations along with the krauts. 


Nor did anyone argue about the fact that Bern- 
stein added a dimension to the squad which was in- 
dispensable in modern warfare: he was fast at 
calculating probabilities. 

"Hey, Beerstein," the Sarge began, "tell me 
what our chances are of get ting into that building by 
taking that hedgerow over to the stone wall, then 
going in through the backdoor." 

Beerstein pauses but a few seconds to examine 
this suggested route. "Are you talking about a forced 
march," he asks in his Arizona drawl. 

"If necessary, why not?" 

"Are you trying to close combat that machine 
gun nest on this move?" 

"Yeah. That's the whole idea." 

"Are we bypassing the wire over there?" 


"Any Artillery, AFVs, or other diversions?" 

"Not that I know of." 

Beerstein shakes his head. 

"What are the odds?" Sarge demands. 

"Well. . . you better make sure everyone in the 
squad has got their insurance coverage in good 
shape before we go." 

"That bad, huh?" the corporal asks. 

Beerstein grabs his bayonet and begins drawing 
figures in the dirt. The first set he labels "Table 
One", the second "Table Two", and the third 
"Table Three." "As you can see from these tables, 
the odds depend on the type of leader up there. It 
might be a 8-0, or a 9-1 , or a 9-2. 1 figure the prob- 
ability of the squad surviving through close combat 
are as high as 8%." 

"How bad can it get?" 

Beerstein points to the lower right corner of his 
charts. "Somewhere around the square root of Pi, 1 
would say." 

The Sarge shakes his head now. "You're right. 
It does not look good." 

"Can I help?" 

The Sarge grimaces as Lt. Bored comes across 
the gully to join them, 

"The boys and 1 have been trying to figure how 
we can get into the building on the other side of the 
road." the Sarge explains. "You got any ideas?" 

The lieutenant crawls up to the edge o f the gully 
and studies the situation. The scion of an old and 
wealthy Philadelphia family, a graduate of Groton 
and Yale, Bored had been the perfect candidate for 
frontline officer training. He was quick to admit his 
lack of experience with actual combat when he got 
this assignment, but he argued that his encyclopedic 
knowledge of the rules was more than compensa- 
tion. On the Normandy front, he had a chance to 
display this learning when — pointing out that Ger- 
man tanks were more vulnerable from the rear— he 
attempted to sneak up behind a Tiger tank while it 
was not looking. Unfortunately, the driver had 
occasion to shift into reverse, and the lieutenant 
barely escaped being turned into a Belgian waffle 
on the French landscape. A little later, during the 
siege of Cherbourg, the platoon ran into a sniper. 
However, since the sniper was taking care to fire at 
everyone but the lieutenant, Bored refused to call 
for a sniper check. He said he was waiting for the 
sniper to show himself. The others guessed that he 
was just miffed at the insult. 

Since then, the men in his platoon learned to 
follow the lieutenant very closely. Or they moved a 
few steps ahead, laying land mines as they went. 
Nothing worked. 

"We do have a problem there, don't we?" the 
lieutenant admits, after studying the building. He 
pulls out his dog-eared copy of the voluminous 
rules he always carried with him. "Well, let's see 
what we can do here, I've got it," he says, after leaf- 
ing through a few pages. "We can roll on the 
"Enemy Preparedness" Table. Maybe they're 
drunk up there." 

The Sarge rolls his eyes. "Drunk? Considering 
the time of day, and the fact that they have already 

fired three bursts in two turns, we would have 10 roll 
snake-eyes twice, gel tails five limes in a row on a 
coin flip, and make a blackjack against the dealer at 
the Sands Hotel in Vegas, to get them drunk." 

The lieutenant nods. "Oh, yeah. I forgot about 
the blackjack. That does make it lough." He skims 
a few more pages. Suddenly his face lights up. 
"How about this. It's a rather obscure rule, but it 
might work. First, we defensive fire on them during 
our Prep Fire Phase—just to throw them off 
balance. Then we hop on assault boats in the gully 
and float down to an airfield. There we board dive 
bombers on our Advance Phase. They take us over 
the building during the kraut Prep Fire, and we 
drop in before they know what hit them." 

The Sarge takes a deep breath and peers around, 
as though looking for the strength with which to 
control his latent homicidal impulses. Either that, 
or a weapon. "An excellent plan, lieutenant. 
However, you may notice that there is no water in 
this gully." 

"Must be the time of year , , ." the lieutenant 

"And we don't have any boats for that matter. 
Even if we did . . ." 

"Wail." The lieutenant begins rifling through 
the pages of his rulebook like a demon. "I'm sure 
there's a rule in here about flooding dry gullies. I 
just barely remember reading it. Maybe it was in the 
quesiion-and-answer section. Or was it the errata 
section? You just hold on. I'll find it." 

"What about calling in that 105mm artillery?" 
the corporal suggests, giving the Sarge a wink. 
"Now is as good a time as any." 

"Yeah, that's a great idea," the Sarge agrees. 
"Why don't you get back on that radio?" 

"All right," Bored says. "I can hunt up that 
rule while I'm calling my friend at the 1052nd." He 
pulls himself erect. "Carry on, Sargeant." 

"Thank you. sir." The Sarge offers a decidedly 
weak salute as the lieutenant moves back down into 
the gully. 

"Do you have any ideas?" the corporal asks. 

The Sarge glances at O' Really and Beerstein, 
then over at the building. "Just one. This is the 
way 1 figure it anyway. We divide the squad into 
two half-squads. I'll lead one and you lead the 
other . . ." 

"But I'm not even rated," the corporal pro- 

"1 know ... I know. But if we're lucky we can 
get you trapped in the middle of a desperate, 
bloody, inconclusive Close Combat, and roll for a 
field promotion." 

"Begosh and begorrah . . ." 

"Anyway, I figure we rush the building from 
two directions at once. They can't gel both of us, 
and they won't have penetration from up there," 

"If only one group gets through, the odds will 
be worse on the close combat," Beerstein inter- 
rupt. "Being optimistic, I would say Ihe prob- 
abilities are lhal half of us will be working in a steel 
mill in Czechoslovakia, and ihe other half will be 
pushing up daisies." 

"Hang the #%@&%\(@) probabilities." the 
Sarge declares. 

"1 heard that, Sargeant," shouts the lieutenant. 
"You know the rules. An 8-0 leader has to roll a five 
or a six on one die before he can use words like that 
. , , unless he is in the LOS of an enemy AFV. 1 
don't want to have to put you on report, Sargeant, 
so watch it." 

The Sarge gives his cigar a particularly vicious 
chomp, and mumbles something under his breath. 
"All right. Unless you guys got some better idea, 
that's the way we'll do it, O'Really, let's you and 
\ start counting off the men into half-squads. I'll 
go . . ." 

"Just a minute, Sargeant," Bored calls. I've got 
a contact on the radio." 

"What?" The Sarge's eyes are actually wide 
and staring. "You mean you've got battery access? 
Well, call it in." 

It's not battery access, exactly," the lieutenant 
replies. "I'm getting the BBC. From London." 

"The BBC?" repeats Corporal O'Really. The 
Sarge only lowers his chin and shakes his head. 

"Yes. It's a special broadcast. It appears that 
while we've been trying to figure out how to take 
that building, the Allies crossed the Rhine and 
destroyed the Wehrmacht. The war is over." 

There is a moment of stunned silence. Then 
every man in the squad but one tosses his helmet in 
the air, his rifle to the ground. They all begin march- 
ing off in the direction of Paris, slapping each other 
on the back and planning their reunions in twenty- 
five years. 

Only the Sarge is left in the gully, his face the 
model of shocked dismay. Even the cigar has fallen 
to the ground. "Well, I'll be a . . .," he mutters. 
"Now I'm going to be a #%@&S(@) 8-0 squad 
leader for the rest of my life." 



Total Responses: 1201 


Titles Listed: 200 

Rank Title 


1. Squad Leader 

2. The Russian Campaign 

3. Third Reich 

4. Victory in the Pacific 

5. War & Peace 

6. C ross of Iron 

7. Crescendo of Doom 

8. Fortress Europa 

9. Panzerblitz 

10. Dungeons & Dragons 

1 1 . Panzer Leader 

12. Afrika Korps 

13. War Al Sea 

14. Magic Realm 

15. Stalingrad 

16. Midway 

17. Kingmaker 
13. Wooden Ships & 
Iron Men 

19. Starship Troopers 

20. Dune 






] (X) 

The popularity ratio ol each title is derived by dividing the 
number of voir by the number of votes received hy the 20th place 
entry. Tret in rank are resolved in favor ot Ihe older title. 


When it comes 10 multi-player games 
DIPLOMACY leads the pack and when it comes 
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DIPLOMACY and its variants. 

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(Slightly higher outside the U.S.) 

Not sure? Well, 3 sample copy can be yours for 
S 1.50 and then you can see for yourself. With 
this sample copy you will gel some valuable info 
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names of GM's so that you can get in on some of 
the fun. po5tally. 

Contact DIPLOMACY WORLD, 1854 Wagner 
Street, Pasadena, CA 91 i07 for more informa 


When we left our Series Replay in progress las! issue 
at l he end of I he Summer, 1943 move the Axis had 
reached its high water mark and the tide was begin- 
ning to turn. In concluding the Replay in this issue 
we not only see who won. but also bid adieu to 2nd 
edition THIRD REICH forever. The 3rd edition 
version announced in this issue will make much of 
what has transpired here mere visions of ho w the 
game used to play. 

Axis Fall 1943 

Help! Can things gel any worse? Again I have 
been guilly of over -confidence, and Libya which [ 
fell was reasonably secure has collapsed like a house 
of cards. The Allies have broken through the line, 
landed on a Libyan beach, grabbed Tripoli with a 
paratmop attack and landed in Sicily! It's the end 
for the Axis in Africa. 

The line in Russia has ceased to exist. But my 
strategy there is now clear: I must form a firm in- 
fantry defense between Odessa and Dneprope- 
trovsk at the expense of the north, and let the whole 
line wheel back, using Dnepropetrovsk as the hinge. 
My losses in Russia due to isolation are worrying. 

1 think the American landing al Calais and the 
capture of The Hague by paradrop is only a 
raid , , . but I must beware of over-confidence this 

This is the moment to use Cyprus, so ! have 
moved I-'olgore there in the hope of distracting him 
and earning a breathing space in which to 
counterattack Sicily. 

Axis Fall 1943: Attrition on all three fronts. The 
Germans continue to apply pressure to the Rostov 
bottleneck, but hold the center with just a single 
weak line, while desperately trying to build a 
defense from Dnepropetrovsk to Odessa. The Axis 
lose two armoured and eleven other units through 

French partisans are removed as attrition losses. 
Germany loses Holland to the USA. 

Italians SR Folgore to Cyprus as a diversion, 
threatening the Jive Middle East ports. 

Allied Fall 1943 

The German response to my landing at Calais 
was enormous. I have abandoned the 1st Armored 
lo its fate and pulled my aircraft back out of range. 
] cannot afford lo lose them. Putting 18AB in The 
Hague has turned oul lo be a mistake, I was forced 
to take an offensive in order to extricate it before he 
put some Panzers adjacent and trapped it. 

With Axis attention focused on the West, the 
Russians have been given an opportunity to make a 
great breakthrough. The German army in Russia is 
disiniegraiing.andhewill find it hard to construct a 
new line of defense until I gel a lot closer lo Ger- 
many. My biggesi problem will be moving the in- 
fantry forward fasi enough. I have avoided leaving 
units next to his isolaled troops where possible to 
prevent these from attacking. 

Allied Fall 1943: In Russia, the German defense 
finally shatters and Soviet armored units hound 
forward on exploitation to the outskirts of Moscow 
and into Kharkov. The Germans have been routed. 

The American paratroops in the Hague drop 
back into England as the raid comes to an end. 

The British cross the Straits of Messina and hold 
one hex of mainland Italy. 

USA lends Britain 39 BRPs, leaving 15 BRPs in 
the US treasurv. 


Armor [8}l y dud 39 Kolbcrg, 47 Rreslau, 56 Hssen. 4R Lcip/ig 

Infantry i J): y Stuttgart. I* Aachen, 27 Frankfurt, 67 025 

Infantry II): 2 x Hungarians RS5, ] Rumanian Kishinev, Unitarian 


Replacement ID: KM 

Air factors (31: 5 in konigsherg. (J36) Urn/. Essen, I in Aachen, I 

Hungarian in Budapest, I Bulgarian in Plnvdis 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE: lit (huildsl. leasing 1% after loss ot 

Holland (TO) 

Eliminated due to Isolation: 14 Pi. ). 4. 10, 1, 15, 17, Rl |M49). rz 


SRs: u arm It* Kalinin, 39 arm lo L52. 47 arm to Moscow, 4H arm to 
N23, M MOSCOW (unused! ro Essen, 5-4 Kharkos [unused! to 
1- rank Inn, I -4 and 3-4 Dnepropctros sk (unused) to Aachen, paras Lo 


llilamry (2): II AA23 

tntanlry II): "Libya 11 Taranln 

Replacement II): DD22 

Paratroops In): tolgore Trieste 

An factors (31: 2 al Rome 

TOIAl EXPENDITURE: 16 |hwlds), leasing 24 

SRs: Eliminated due In isolation: I arm, 14, 20, replacement 


Replacements S]7 and Naples lo 020 and 021, airbase (E52) to 

GGM, tolgore to Oti34. y- Heel [Trieste) to Taranio 

Lent: 5-4 (Meta), replacements (O20 and 0211 


Nh: Allied tola I now 214, including 40 Persia 


Armor (HI: 13 Manchester 

liif:iiitrs it): s. y and t2 London. 2 lit E- J2S. 2 tan Birmingham 

Infantry (II: "Malta" Portsmouth, "Pahst" Birmingham 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE: 25 (tnnlds| - 15 loffcnsive) = 40, leasing 

57 afler receipt ol 3V from US Caucasus supply as last (urn 

SRs: 13 arm lo Gibraltar. 2 can lo ;X)22. 5 to Haifa. Palest. 10 

Gibraltar, IAB its Messina 


Attnor 16): 1 1 Tit T42 
Inlanrrs (31: 57 Gorki 
llllalltrs (21: II) R42, 5 UK- 
Ill lanlry (II: 27 R42. 22 and I4S4I, 29 148. 13 T39 
Partisan (2): Kio 
Air I'aelors (31: 2 at Mai Lop 

TOTAl EXPENDITURE: 26 1 huildsl ■ 15 loffensivel = 41. leasing 
40 after arris al of 40 gins 

SRs: airbases (U5B and 051 ) to K47 and 1 50, t Pr 10 150, 5-4 (Maikop) 
III K47. 62 10 149, 64 10 K47 


Infantry 13): 5 and 21 USA. Loan 3y BRPs to Britain 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE: 6 (builrfsl * 15 (offensive) t ]9 

(loan) » 60, teasing 15 

SRs; JtoJJS, 21 t n 1.2 1, fleet ( USA I to Portsmouth. 27b I o Beirut, ly 

10 i^orl Said, 4 10 Alexandria, 65 In Sue/ 

TOTAI Al I II D BRPsliiFT: 112 

Axis Winler 1943 

Moving Folgore to Cyprus has had a disappoint- 
ing response, and he has continued 10 advance 
everywhere, pushing across inio Italy from Sicily. 
So I have wi indrawn Folgore to Naples. 

In Russia I have been totally routed. The Rus- 
sian armor has broken through everywhere: he has 
caplured Kharkov and is adjaceni to Moscow. The 
only friend 1 have is the poor Soviet SR capacity: 
however, against that, he can build infantry in his 


front line, so 1 must avoid destroying Russian in- 
fantry and hope for poor attrition results in terms 
of counters lost! 

The Americans have gone home thank good- 
ness: they gave me quite a scare. 

In Italy my strategy is to hold the third line 
strongly at the expense of the first and second. The 
reason for this is that naval units cannot shore bom- 
bard in aid of an exploitation attack and I am very 
frightened by the power of the Royal Navy. 1 am 
holding Salerno {AA231 more strongly than the 
other hexes because 1 do not want him to land on the 
beach and place a bridgehead. Attrition is a power- 
ful weapon in Italy and I don't want Allied BHs 
spoiling my chances. This is also the reason for risk- 
ing a fleet in Taranlo. 

In the wake of the American raid 1 have started 
to take the defense of France much more seriously. 
The invasion could come at any lime. 1 am absolute- 
ly determined to prevent him landing at Calais: 
once ashore I cannot prevent the Americans 
advancing, only hold them to two or three hexes pet 
turn. Therefore I desperately need space, and hope 
to channel his landing into Bordeaux or Briltany, 
thereby gaining myself some ground to trade foi 

Only now has Germany built her spare twe 
fleets: they could help me supplement SR bj 
transporting the l-3s east. 

Axis Winter 1943: The German line in Russia has 
teased lo exist. Apart from a line of Finns from 
Vologda lo Kalinin, and a rudimentary infantry 
defense between Kiev Dnepropetrovsk and the 
Black Sea, the renter is wide open, with just an ar- 
mored garrison in Smolensk, Moscow and K46. 
Only the lack of Soviet SR can slow the Russian ad- 
vance. The German forces in the east have been 
completely routed. 

In the west, the Germans recapture Calais and 
the Hague, and are once more the masters of the 
Atlantic coastline. 

In Italy, Celere and Alpini move lo hold Salerno 
(AA23), but no counterattack is made on the 
British. To/gore returns to Naples. Germany builds 
her last two fleets. 

Allied Winter 1943 

The German positions on the Southern Dnepr 
look unassailable at present, so the Soviet offensive 
has had to be restricted to the Norlh. I would really 
prefer to advance towards the Balkans in order to 
eventually eliminate the Minor Allies, but the Axis 
is still strong enough to make impregnable any 
single area it chooses to defend, 1 am forced to 
attack wherever he is weakest. Since I cannot encir- 
cle many units, I have made a single thrust as far 
west as possible, taking Vitebsk and also surround- 
ing Smolensk. I made two 1-2 attacks, expecting to 
lose some infantry which I could then rebuild fur- 
ther west, and suffered no losses at all! In order to 
give sufficient air cover to my from line 1 have had 
to leave two air units at Orel in danger of 
eounterair. To take advantage of the opportunity 
he would have to place his last airbaseon the board. 

My airdrop in Albania should cause him some 
problems. Next turn I could transport units into the 
port and perhaps conquer Yugoslavia or Bulgaria, 
thus opening up a whole new front. It would be 
easier to make progress there than in Italy, where 
the front is too narrow for effective attacks. 

At this stage of the game, it is not so important 
to keep my base levels intact. I have left the USA 
without a BRP reserve to take SW losses. However, 
the British base level must not be allowed to fall too 
low or else my BRP expenditure per turn might be 
severely restricted. 

Allied Winter 1943: The Russians continue their 
astonishing rate of advance, recapturing Moscow 
just in time for the Year/Start, and exploiting as far 

wesi as Vitebsk and the Soviet border with the 
Baltic States. Smolensk is isolated and by-passed, 
but the German infantry defense between 
Dnepropetrovsk and the Crimea holds. 
Dnepropetrovsk has become the hinge around 
which the entire Soviet advance is wheeling. 

In the Mediterranean, the British advance two 
hexes up the Italian toe, bringing them adjacent to 
Toronto and Salerno (AA23), British paratroops 
seize the Albanian port, threatening an Allied ad- 
vance through neutral Yugoslavia. The British do 
not bother to move against Tunisia, but a 1-3 lands 
at Casablanca. 

In Britain, the Americans wait. USA lends IS 
BRPS to Britain, reducing the US treasury to zero. 


Armor (101: ISS ?/ Wilheliiishavcn 

Armor (X| 4* Vi and 2SS !>/ kolberg, 14 IV Berlin, 19 Vi )37. 24 Pa 

j nil 57 P/ Qii 

Inr'iiwrs 13): II Breslau. fi and K4 Vienna, I and tTQroX, 4 J37. 13 

K36. 3 Kid, HI J.W 

Inlantry (21; Rumanian 2-3 Cenuutt 

Inlautrs (I): Rumanian Cernauli. 2 Hungarian 1 . R33 

FteltU7>: 2 in Kiel 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE: 144 I builds) t 30 (offensive), leaving 22 

SRs: 4* Vi lo Smolensk, ISS Pa lo Kiev, II lo PJ9, 6ioQJ», IWio 

Q40, I and 17 io Dnepropetrovsk, 54v (Essen. Aat'heul 10 Kiev and 

Odessa, .ili i i i I : i i i r- : -^ unless othLTssise suited: s 4 ll s'onsl reserls i,' 

Italian conlrnl 

Hiltlillaled Jut in isolaiion: 8. 20, 7$, 39 p,. 41 Vi. HI IP4J) H/ 

[P461, K/ ti'47). Air Base IHSOI to Berlin 


\: i:u- (4): I Casino, 7 TarantLS 

Infanlry(l): 14 X23. 20 Florence 

Replacement ll): Livonia and BBS 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE: 12 Ibuilds), leaving 12 

SRs: I arm 10 P23. replacement (Livoruo) 10 Y20. II 10 AA26, 

Eolgore in Naples, 10 to Lonent 

Lent: 5-4(Romel. 1 arm. 20. rcpl (021 and O20I 


tlim mated due to isolaiion: 5 

1MB: Allied lOlalnow 112 


Infaniry (1): il Egypi" Porlsnioulli 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE: I (build) + 15 (offensive) ■= 16. leaving 

56 after 15 loan from USA 

SRs: K and 9 10 AA26, 12 10 Syraeuse. Ilect (Benghazi) 10 Medina. 

airbases (Great Yarmouih and LL20I 10 Liverrkk 1 and BB24. Fleets 

US9 (Portsmouth) and 2 + 1 (TripolDsupply 3 units in llalyand Nieils 

(free Ereneh 5GCM exploited turn and so does no! need supply) 


Infinity (31: 2 (Ids Orel 

Air laelors (3): 5 al Orel 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE: IS (builds) * |}(offensjie). leaving 7 

SRs: airbase 1150) and 5-4 (K47) 10 Orel. 2 shk 10 L42. 3 shk to 

Vitebsk. 60 to H43, S Ods 10 041 


No builds. Loan 15 BRPs 10 Britain 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE; 15 (loan), leaving)) 

SRs; 22 to Belfasi, airbase (LL22I 10 AAI6. Ileet 1 Portsmouth I to 

USA. 5-4 (K24! 10 Liverpool 



Slralegie Warfare Kesolulinn 

Germany has 27 U-boats from last year and 27 huih in 194.1 - 54, 
Allies base 12 ASW, each ol wbieti now sink 2 U-boals, leaving 30, 
*hith resulls in loss of 90 US BRPs, reducing the US base from 266 
(0 176! 


7 BRPs left (having )usl lost Moscow wilb 15 BRPs|. Growth rale = 

50 ( "«. so new base 318+3=3'/ 

Conquests and active allies: as last year minus Moscow , tola! 212 

Tola I BKPs 1944 start: 53.1 

Spend 52 on 26 U-boats, leaving 431 


12 SRIMcfl. Growth rale 20" ■-■ 2. so nev. base 80 t- 2 = S2 
Conquests: as las! year, lOlal 15 
total BRPs 1944sian: 9? 


56 BRPs left. Growlh ralc40'i = 22, so new base 127 ■» 22 ■ 149 
Conquests: Lebanon-Syria (51. Libya (5), total 10 
Total BRl's 1944 si an: 159 
Spend 15 on 5 ASW, leasing 144 


7 BRl's lelt. Growth rate 30*i = 2. so new base 139 + 2 = 141 

Toial BRPs 1944 start: 141 - 15 I Leningrad) - 126 


BRPs lefi, so base remains 176, as above 

Spends 15 on 5 ASW. leasing 161 



1944 Year/Start: Remembering that the British can 
not now lend BRPs to the Americans, the Germans 
are attacking the US economy with its superior 
growlh rale in a desperate attempt to retain the in- 
itiative right through to the end of the game; double 
move now would probably lose the game for the 

Axis Spring 1944 

I've been pussy-footing around too long! Who 
says I've lost this game? German armor still rules 
supreme, and now that the Bailie is a German lake 1 
can use Leningrad as a really powerful threat to his 
rear. By advancing his armor to the Russian border 
with the Baltic States, he was asking lo have his 
neck cut off so I have obliged. His armor at the 
front cannot exploit now, and the paratroops in 
Moscow cannot drop. 

There has been a minor disaster in the Mediter- 
ranean. The Allied capture of the Albanian porl 
with a paratroop attack was a very good move, t 
have spent a lot of time examining possible 
Yugoslav defenses againsl an Allied attack and 
found none which was secure. I therefore attacked 
them myself in order to SR powerful German units 
to the Yugoslav/Albanian frontier. Thank 
goodness Greece is still neutral! I view an Allied in- 
cursion into the Balkans with alarm: holding such a 
wide front would dissipate my forces and leave the 
Mediterranean area very vulnerable. 1 am willing to 
lose some ground in Italy in order to defeat this 
menace. 1 must also proteel Greece from an Allied 

Why hasn't he landed in France? Mind you, 1 
am not complaining . . . ! 

1 got real pleasure from the Strategic Warfare 
results: it's not often one gets the chance to reduce 
the mighty US dollar by 90 BRPs! Hedocsn'l seem 
lo have appreciated my strategy. Since ihe USA has 
lent BRPs lo Britain, ihe British cannol support ihe 
US Treasury, so his base is very vulnerable, lam not 
hoping to bankrupt America, just prevent an Allied 
double move. I have also announced movement in- 
to the Murmansk Convoy Box to discourage the 
Allies from trying the Arctic route; in fact it is only 
one U-boal, and 1 doubt he'll be fooled! 

This turn I built my last airbase: saving it for so 
long maintained a useful threat which will be missed. 

The Westwall forls appear this turn, always a 
great relief. And what a humorous move: landing 
ihe Maltese 1-3 at Casablanca — with no opposition 
it should reach Tunis in Spring 1945! 

Axis Spring 1944: The Germans counterattack in 
the east, aided by the transport of three armoured 
units through Leningrad. These cut off the Russian 
spearhead at Vitebsk, advance to the outskirts of 
Moscow (preventing a Soviet paratroop unit from 
dropping), and resupply Smolensk (ihe hex north- 
east of Smolensk remained in German control, so it 
is not necessary to pass through it again). While a 
weak armored line tries to hold the Russian hordes 
back, Axis infantry is beginning to regroup along 
the line of the Dnepr. 

Alarmed at the ease with which an Allied attack 
on neutral Yugoslavia could swamp that country 
now that they control the Albanian port, the Axis 
launch a pre-emptive strike, knock out Yugoslavia 
and redeploy defensively along the A/banian/ 
Yugoslavian border. The only neutral countries 
now remaining are Spain. Portugal. Turkey, and 

The Italians move a fleet to Corsica as a defen- 
sive measure. This turn, the last German airbase 
was built fat L40) in order to eounterair Orel. One 
U-boat moves into ihe Murmansk Convoy Box, as 
usual making a lot of noise in the hope of being 
mistaken for a larger formation. Due to isolation 
six Soviet armored units are threatened with loss of 
exploitation capability in their turn. 

Allied Spring 1944 

At last I am ready to open a new front in the 
West. The USA has almost its entire force pool 
available tor the invasion. Since Marcus has wisely 
defended the Pas de Calais region strongly at the ex- 
pense of the Normandy beaches, I have landed at 
the latler, and secured a good-sized bridgehead. 

German reaction to my Albanian adventure was 
swift and strong. There is no longer any chance of a 
breakout there and so, having at least succeeded in 
drawing away forces which would otherwise have 
been defending the Russian front, 1 am abandoning 
this foothold and returning my attention to Italy. 
My chances of taking Rome in the time remaining 
are small, especially since my fleets in Britain are 
now too preoccupied with Overlord to be spared for 
escorting reinforcements into ihe Mediterranean. 
However, my continued advance in Italy will keep 
enemy units away from other fronts. I chose to 
leave my Albanian force unsupplied, since keeping 
them in Albania would have enabled the Axis to 
reach a higher attrition column and so make 
progress in Italy still more difficult. 

Allied Sprint! 1944: D-Day! The Americans land in 
weakly held Normandy, and this time they are there 
to stay. Paratroops seize Cherbourg. The 
Americans lose six air factors in an exchange while 
clearing Brittany and 020 on exploitation. French 
partisans appear between Brittany and Vichy. 

Advancing a total of three hexes thanks to a 
paratroop attack on the second line, the British cap- 
ture Tar ant o. and advance on exploitation to cup- 
lure the Foggia peninsula (Y25). IBEF invades 
Tunisia while a 1-3 conquers Morocco single- 
handed! British decide not to contest Albania, and 
allow the ground units there to remain unsupplied. 

The Soviets break the German armored front- 
line, and, aided by paratroops, seize Dnepro- 
petro vsk . They now hold a strong line from Vitebsk 
to Dnepropetrovsk. The Russian infantry has at last 
caught up with the armor. 

Britain lends Russia 20 BRPs via Lend-Lease. A 
British attempt to deactivate Vichy France 1-2 
modifier) fails. 


Armor (8): •> Pi Leipzig. 47 Pt (?33, 39 P Kolberg, 41 IV Breslau. 

I>AK Prague 

Infanirs |3>:K I eip/ig, 20 Wilhclmsllavcn, 76 and 39 128.44 1 29.74 

J37. 2F'sjrS27 

Infantry (2); Rumanian 2-3 Bucharest 

lnlanlry {1: ?6 Essen, 66 Aachen, 49 Frank Tun, 50 Stuttgart, 

Hungarian S29, Bulgarians Sofia. Z30s and /?l 

Air factors (3): 5 at J 36 and Breslau 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE: 101 (builds) * 10 (»ar on Yugoslavia) * 

30 (offensives) =141. leasing 340 

SRs: 1SS Pi lo Leningrad, 14 P/ in Y2S. 9 P/ lu M24, 2 Fsjr lo Y28. 

39 P/ in Minsk, 41 p, [[> Y29, 8 inl lo W26, OAK id Naples, unused 

5-4 1 1 .cuingrad) lo Sarajevo 


Infantry (2): 5 Y24. II Venice 

Infantry (J): 35 Trieste 

Replacement II): Z24 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE: 6 Ibuilds), leaving 91 

SRs: 17 inf to Z28, II inf IO Z29. fleel (Venice) lo X20. airbase 

I Rome) and 5 4 unused (Lyons) to Sarajevo 

Lent: repl, (021), Folgore. 5. 5-4 (Sarajevo) 


MB: Allied total now also 431 

I U-boai moses to Murmansk bo* 


Fleet (27); Portsmouth. Kails to deactivate Vichy (die roll -2, cost 5 


TOTAL EXPENDITURE 27 (build) * J(Vichyatlcnlpl) + 20[ B ift 

10 USSR via Persia, escorted by US Heel Plymouth) * 15 

(offensive I -67, leaving 77 

SRs: lABloBrindisi.5lol.LI9,2 x SJ (one Free French) (AA26IIO 

Messina, airbase (Liverpool) Lotircal Yarmouth. 20 HRPs to Persia 

en route lo Russia). Heels Free French 8 (Portsmouth) and Free 

French 9 (Gibraltar) supply L Can. 12. WDF, SCCM, I AB. 


Armor (6): 4 F43. 22 H42 

infamry (31: 70 141, I Shk F43. J lids C42 

Infantry (2): II H42 

Air factors (3): 5 at Kalinin 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE: 38 (builds) + 15 (offensive) = J3. leasing 


SRs: airbase(K47l In Vitebsk. I Pr to Of el, 61 to J42, 62 lis 143. Nav 

■ 0(143. 12 lo Bryansk 


Armor (10): I, 7, 20 USA 

Air factors 111: 5 USA 

Fleet (27|; I USA 

Partisans 121: t>20 and Q20 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE: 76 1 builds) + I S (offensive) = 91. leasing 


SRs; Fleet USA lo Plymouth and 5-4 (USA) lo Portsmouth. 20 arm 

and 7 arm to Scapa F'lon, 1 arm to Plymouth, 4 inf to MM 19, 5-4 

(London) to Cherbourg, 5-4 (Plymouth) to Rcnnes. airbase (Df>22) 

I ,» MfSMIiil 

TOTAL ALLIED BRPs LEFT; Ml 120 en route in Persia) 

B, 9 i n A A 26 remiss ed d uc lo lack of supply . B H < DD22 ) removed due 

to redundancy 

Axis Summer 1944 

Three months ahead of schedule, in Spring 1944 
the Allied steamroller lands in France. From now 
on ihe Western Front gets most of my attention. 1 
seem to have succeeded in channeling his attack 
away from Calais: Normandy is not the worst place 
he could have landed (but not the nicest either!). 
Once again he has used his partisans to great effect; 
[ didn't really deserve lo gel such a good attrition 
result, and I don't deny it was a mistake to allow 
him such good positions in which to build partisans. 
What really worries me now is thai he will combine 
his powerful air force with his massive naval 
superiority to crawl slowly but irrevocably 
eastwards along the coast. If only the Westwall 
reached the coast! This is why I am holding the 
coastline near Paris so strongly, lam hoping he will 
waste lime swinging south from Normandy instead 
of easl. German fleets are now of only limited 
value, so 1 am willing to sacrifice (hem to prevent 
Allied landings at Calais or Wilhelmshaven. 1 hope 
Vichy survives for a few lurns more, and 1 hope lo 
hold Paris for a while longer with the help of my air 
wings between Belgium and Switzerland. 

In Italy (here is a real see-saw battle raging with 
both sides alternately isolating and breaking the 
isolation of each other's forward units. If only I 
could push DAK onto I he AA23 beach; even so 
Naples is a good place for armor since it can be sup- 
plied regardless, and prevents Allied supply to the 
nonh. 1 am very surprised that he abandoned 
Albania: I was very frightened by that threat. 

But Tor me, (his turn, the really exciting realiza- 
tion is that 1 have managed to stop the Russians. 
Much to my own surprise (and 1 think his) my front 
line has solidified from Lake Peipus to near 
Dnepropetrovsk: it was the Axis infantry defending 
the Dnepr bend which won the day for me, I can 
now hope to retreat to the narrow neck between 
Danzig and Odessa with some semblance of order. 

The Maltese 1-3 has conquered Morocco single- 

Axis Summer 1944: A ttrition on all fronts. The ad- 
vance of the British up the east coast of Italy has left 
Cetere and Alpini isolated (AA23), so they can not 
take advantage of a hex gained. However, the 
British remove the armor which was causing their 
isolation as an attrition loss. 

For the first time since the rout, the Axis have a 
stable defense in Russia, running from Lake Peipus 
southeast wards along a line two hexes east of the 
Dnepr. Leningrad, held by Germans and Finns, is 
under siege. 

In France, a good attrition result permits the 
Germans to drive a wedge between the US forces 
and the partisans. Germany defends Calais and 
Wilhelmshaven with fleets, 

The Italians send an armored unit to Tunisia. 
Italians and Axis Minors garrison Yugoslavia and 

Allied Summer 1944 

The German defense in the East— a line of in- 
fantry backed by armor and ZOCs— is proving very 


difficult to overcome. With a movement factor of 
only 5, the Soviet armor cannot infiltrate far 
through ZOCs {unlike the Panzers which can move 
through iwo enemy-controlled hexes), and without 
sufficient air superiority my airborne units cannot 
remove the obstructing armor. 1 have restricted my 
attacks to one half of the front in order to gain a 
small localized air superiority. This has enabled me 
to make two breakthroughs which, together with 
newly-built partisans, have isolated several units. 

In Italy I can make no more progress until I cap- 
ture Naples as the ZOC of the armored unit there 
would put my advancing units out of supply, 
Naples is too strongly defended to be taken by of- 
fensive and cannot be isolated since it is a port. 
Even an attrition option was not a lot of use as he 
could have removed the units from Naples lo pre- 
vent its capture, but it perhaps will give me the op- 
portunity to take it next turn, 1 considered the 
possibility of an airdrop onto Rome, but with 4 
Axis air units close enough for a counterattack, I 
could not have held it. 

It is beginning to look very unlikely thai either 
Allied side will achieve its victory conditions. My 
rate of advance on all fronts is just too slow. This is 
a result of the size of the German BRP lead. He is 
able to keep his entire force pool in play while 1 am 
barely able to do so and cannot afford the heavy 
losses which the Allies must accept if they are to 
win. The Russians in particular, because of their 
lack of aircraft, need to wear down the Germans 
with low-odds attacks. All 1 can do is push forward 
towards those objectives which are within easy 
reach and try to make the short fall in number of ob- 
jectives as small as possible. This means that the 
Mediterranean front, where no more objectives are 
likely to be captured, will receive low priority and 
will probably be stripped to reinforce the West. 

Allied Summer 1944: The Americans liberate Paris 
on exploitation. 

On the Eastern Front, a slugfest begins as the 
Soviets push hard, driving a thin wedge westwards 
from Dnepropetrovsk, and get t ting a toe-hold 
across the Dnepr at N39, Partisans seize Odessa and 
threaten to complete the encirclement of those units 
ho/ding the Dnepr bend. 

Threatened by encirclement by the Italian ar- 
mor, IBEF withdraws from Tunisia. Attrition 
makes no progress in Italy, Britain lends Russia 20 
BRPs via Lend Lease. 



Armor (8): 2SS Pi and 19 Pi Prague, 46 P? 337 

lnlanlry (3); 17 Breslau 

Infanlry (2): Hungarian 2-3 R.33, Finnish 2- 3s A46 and B45 and 


Infantry (I): 79 Kiel, 81 Q25. Rumanian I -3s (isvts)in Cernauli 

Replacements 1 1): 2 in Is Its 

Air factors |3); 5 a I Dresden, I Finnish at Helsinki 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE; S9(buildsl. leaving 301 after receipt of 20 

BRP loan from Italy 

SRs: 40 and 44 ml us X24. 2SS Pi lo 040, 19 Vi to R39. J -4 (Florence) 

to 1.40, 17 inl lo Minsk, 14 Pi lo F4I, Reels (Kiel) to Wilhelmshaven 

and Calais 56 P/, Finnish unit on F46 and replacement tBresU re. 

moved due to isolation 


Armor (4): 2 Milan 

Infamry (li: 16 W24, 20 Rome. "Libya" Venice 
Replacements (I): Trieste and T26 

TOTAl EXPENDITURE; 9 Ibuilds) ♦ 20 (loan lo Germany), leav- 
ing 57 a tier loss ol Morocco (?) 

SRs: M (Sedan) 10 Vilna, 2 arm lo (.,(,14. 3] lo L40 (then lenl). 
replacement (X20) lo N40 
Lent: R<02l), Folgore, J, 39, I arm. 1 arm 
SB: Allied total noss 240. including 20 in Persia 
For cheeking; No Axis unbuilt units except I hose eliminated due to 


Infantry (I): "Pales!" Portsmouth, "Egypt" Dover 

Air lactors (3); 5a( Plymouth 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE: 17 (buildsl + 20 (gift lo USSR via 

Persia) ■ 37, leaves 40 


Posiliun* prior id Allied Cumber full 1944: Ground units Have (fade unit designation primed in black with a solid square for infantry, a solid circle for armor, and a solid Triangle Tor airborne. 
Replacements air. designated by Ihe leller "K", partisans lis "P". and Minor Allies by a combination of nationality Inter and allack faclor IF2 - Finnish 2 factor unit). Air and naval units are shown by their 
attack slrcnglh within a hollow ciiv-le. The Am, (or all lis strength, is losing ground 10 sledgehammer offensives from east and west. 


5Rv; 5 TO Hfindisi, airbase IGrcal Yarmouth) lo L23, 5-t I Plymouth] 
To Lorienl, Fleets FFS (Portsmouth) and 2 4 I (Messina) supply 3 
unils in France and 3 in Italy 


Infantry <2>: to and 12 (K42) 

Infantry II): 23 N42. 20 C4* 

Paratroops 16); 2Pr Bryansk 

Air factor* (3): 5 al v,i t!.' 

Partisans (2): Odessa. 537, 038 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE: J3 (builds) + 1 5 (offensive) = 48, leasing 

43 after 20 gill received 

SRs; airbase lOrcl) To Kharkov, 5-4 (Bryansk) to Kharkov, 2 Tk to 

P43, Ifi inf lo D46 


Air factors (3): 5 and I in USA 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE: IB (builds) + 15 (offcnsivcl = 33. leaving 


SRs: 5-4 and I -4 and airbase (USA) to Portsmouth 5-4 (London) to 

Brest, 2 ro PlymoTJTh. 4 to Messina. 

TOTAL AL L I E D B RPs L E KT : 1 42 (i ncl ud ing 20 i n Lend Lease Bos > 

Axis Fall 1944 

The loss of Paris so soon is a big disappoint- 
menl: since 1 cannot counterattack, I have lost 
Vichy. 1 will miss those units holding Ihe south, but 
at least there is now no need to keep any Italians in 
Africa. I was hoping he would strike southwards, 
but he did not take the bail. 

The Russians are still pushing hard: those 
blasted partisans are active again and having oc- 
cupied Odessa are in danger of isolating the units 
between there and Dnepropetrovsk. I don't think 1 
can hold the Dnepr bend, so will try to retreat into 

I was very fortunate to get excellent attrition 
results on all three Fronts. In the East, three hexes 
were the minimum I needed to be comfortable: one 
push dislodges the partisans from Odessa so resup- 
plying the Dnepr bend, a second push throws the 
Russians out of the marshes and back across the 
river thus reducing the pressure on Kiev, and the 
third allows the panzers to advance adjacent to 
Bryansk preventing the Soviet paratroops there 
from dropping this turn. It is not often in a game 
that one actually develops an affection for a unit, 
but I have to say 1st infantry and GSD armor (P41) 
have earned that honor. They moved into position 
adjacent to Dnepropetrovsk back in Spring 1944 
and acted as a breakwater against the Russian tide. 
But finally their time is up. I shall miss them, 

I n ihe West I have also been lucky : gaining a hex 
has permitted me to push ihe lent Italian armor ad- 
jacent to the American paratroops, a very useful 
advance which also hinders the arrival of Allied 

In the Mediterranean, attrition continues to 
take a heavy toil of the British (in fact the Cana- 
dians — he removed both Canadian armor and in- 
fantry to protect the armor at V25). Just for the fun 
of it, I have also sent a lent Italian armored unit into 
Tunisia (last turn) and now Libya. It has chased the 
British I BEF all the way back to Tripoli! 

I am now defending Albania with two adjacent 
units, so preventing Allied SR into the port after a 
paradrop. I have lain a carpet of units from 
Belgrade to the Yugoslav beach, because partisans 
otherwise could actually isolate the beach by sur- 
rounding it, 

1 have garrisoned Oran against the marauding 

Axis Fall 1944: Attrition on all fronts reaps good 
results everywhere. The Soviet crossing of the 
Dnepr in (he center is repulsed, though the position 
in the south is untenable. The Axis prepare to de- 
fend the Rumanian border. Six infantry units, two 
armoured units and the parachute unit are lost by 

In France, the Germans prepare to defend a line 
from Dieppe to Switzerland, plus Marseilles. A lent 
Italian armored unit advances adjacent lo Caen, 
blocking the American advance and preventing the 
US paratroops from dropping in their turn. 

The British advance in Italy is checked. Celere 
and A Spin i still hold out at AA23. The Italian ar- 
mored unit in Tunisia advances on Tripoli, via J J 14 
and JJ '15 to avoid the risk of isolation by the SR of 
an Allied armored unit behind its back. 

Allied Fall 1944 

I positioned my Russian partisans badly last 
turn, enabling Marcus to resupply his southern 
pocket. Since he has now swamped this part of the 
front with air units, I'm switching my attack back 
to the north. In ihe center, I just can't get a foothold 
across the Dnepr river. I couldn't quite reach Riga 
this turn, but I should be able to take it by the end of 
the game. I've placed an airborne unit at G42 from 
where it can threaten Stockholm and Helsinki as 
well as support my Baltic States offensive. 

The failure to capture a hex with my Mediterra- 
nean attrition signals the end of any chance 1 may 
still have had to capture Rome. I'm not even tying 
down any Axis air units in Italy. My units 
there — particularly the air and airborne — could be 
belter used in France and will now be transferred 
there as soon as possible. 

The Italian 2nd Armor in Libya is making a 
nuisance of itself. If I'm not careful, he might be 
able to make a l-l attack on Tripoli with shore 
bombardment. Since this is the only objective I've 
captured in ihe Mediterranean, it would be embar- 
rassing to lose il. The 30th Armor has been dis- 
patched to Africa to lend a hand. I 've also placed an 
airbase in a hex which the Italians are likely to want 
to move through, thus sending it back to Britain— a 
cheap way of redeploying it. 

It's not worth conserving BRPs any more. I 
won't have much opportunity to build in 1945. 
However, I've left Britain with enough so that even 
if it takes an offensive next turn and suffers the 
maximum possible Strategic Warfare losses, the 
nexi Year/Start BRP level will be 60— enough for 
two offensives each turn in 1945- 

Allied Fall 1944: Leaving the center and south 
alone, the Soviets drive hard in the north. Soviet ar- 
mored spearheads reach the border between East 
Prussia and the Baltic States. In the south, both 
sides are trying lo isolate each other. The Russian 
advance here is restricted to a width of one hex by 
an armored unit, but partisans hold the 
Soviet /Rumanian border. 

The Americans finally breakout across the 
Loire into southern France. Partisans seize 
No progress is made in Italy. The armored unit 
which so daringly seized the Foggia peninsula, is 
now eliminated due to isolation. The British begin 
to abandon the Mediterranean. 

The USA lends Britain 2 BRPs, lea ving the USA 
with 15. 


Armor (8): 56 Pi Q33 

Infaniry (3): 27 Leipzig, 30 and 36 Munich 

In tan try (2): Finnish 2-3 A4ft 

Infaniry (I): Rumanians In Cernauli and U36. Hungarians in R33 


Replacement (II: Kolberjj 

Air factors (3): 5 in Aaehen and Essen 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE: 54 (builds), leasing 205 afler loss of 

I- ranee (42) 

SRs: airbases (Berlin) lo Mel/ and Srrasshourg. 5-4s (Brcst-Litovsk. 

Aachen . Essen 1 1 Cer nau I i , Mel z, S I rass bourg , 27 inf to U 1 9 . 30 inf 

to Cassino, 3fi inf lo Turin, replacement (Kolbcrg) to Talinn 

The following unils are removed due lo isolation: paras. GSD, 2SS 

Pz, and infaniry: 1,23,29,51 and Rumanian (P40) 


Infantry (2): 1 1 Rome 

Replacements 1 1>: U2I and Livorno 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE: 4. leaving 53 

SRs: 5 lo Rome, airbases (Rome and Sarajevo) to Cernauti and S3 5, 

5-4(Lvov)ioS35. 14 to W 16 

I cot: 5-4(mul/|. 1 arm, 2 .inn. *5 


NB: Allied total now 142, including 20 in Persia 


Infantry (3): 2C L23, 8J25 

Infantry (I) "Egypr" Portsmouth. ■'Palest" L23 

Air factors (3): 5 al Portsmouth 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE: 23 Ibuilds). leasing 19 after receipt of 2 

BRPs loan from USA 

SRs; airbase IL23) to Liverpool. 5-4 (Messina) lo Portsmouth, IAB 

to St Nazaire, 30 arm to J TO, airbase Benghazi to KKI5, FFS in 

Portsmouth and 9 in Malta supplied ft units in Italy/Sicily plus 

"Malta' 1 and US 1 3 armor. I SAB dropped Easl turn, and atl other US 

units were supplied from Paris 

13 arm removed due to lack of supply, and BH ICaen) 


Infantry (3): 3 Gds M40, S Gds L41 . 2 Gds Dnepropetrovsk 

Infantry (2): 12 Mil 

Infantry (I): I4U39, 19 R42. 21 S4I, 29Q42. 27 P4I, 2SD41 . 30 P42 

Air lactors (3): 2 al Vitebsk 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE: 24(buildsl * 15 (offensive) - 39, leaving 

26 after receipt of 20 gift 

S Rs : at rbasc I Kharkov ) a n d 5 -4 (Smolensk ) to G42 , I Pr 1 G42, S3 1 

Vitebsk. 2 Shk to J42, 5 Shk to K42 


Infaniry (3(: 22 in USA 
Partisan (2): Marseilles 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE: 5 (builds) + 2 (loan to Britain) + 15 (of- 
fensive) = 22. leaving 15 

SRs: 22 10 Portsmouth, flcel (Plymouth) lo Seapa Flow, 20 arm to 
0'9, 5-4s (Caen and Lorienl) to Liverpool. 34 and 14 (Cherbourg) 
10 Glasgow, IJI0Q19, S lo RI9 

Axis Winter 1944 

I confess that I did nol expect such a powerful 
Soviet drive in the north: my eyes have been held by 
the aciion in the south where the Russians have a 
corridor just one hex wide and we are both trying to 
isolate each other. That the Russians reached the 
East Prussian border at all is very alarming: I had 
intended to use the Parnu bridgehead, established 
very early in the game, as a second Leningrad, but it 
looks like the Baltic Stales have had it. I feel the 
threat in the north is very serious, and have diverted 
all available units thither. It is time to start worrying 
about ownership of objectives, so I am going to 
make an effort to hang on to Riga for a little while 
longer, though I recognize! cannot expect to keep il 
unlil the end. 

In the West the gallant lent Italian armor has 
been overwhelmed, and the Americans have surged 
southwards . . . much to my delight! Every turn 
they waste going south is a turn gained for me, even 
if he is after Lyons, Marseilles, Milan and Genoa, 
The capture of Marseilles was a brilliant move, I ad- 
mit. Both partisans were already in play, so I did 
not garrison that objective. I failed to realise that he 
could kill off a partisan and immediately rebuild il 
elsewhere! Fortunately the partisans do not make 
the port friendly to him. 

In the Mediterranean, the impasse has at last 
been broken. His attrition failed and 1 3th armor at 
Y25 has been eliminated by isolation. He has begun 
to withdraw units to the Western Front realising he 
is unlikely to capture Rome. I wonder? Do you 
think 1 might have a chance to recapture Tripoli? 1 
think I'll sneak a few units across in the next few 
moves and see if he responds. 

I have a plan, a good plan. Allied BRPs are very 
low (at the end of the fall turn the USA had only 15, 
and can't receive loans from Britain). My biggest 
problems are the Allied air wings. I am very rich. 
These three facts give me the opportunity to hit 
back hard in Spring 1945: this is my reason for 
going for the American and Russian air wings. I 
have destroyed three American air wings and two 
Russian. He could at most rebuild only two of 
these, reducing the Allied superiority temporarily 
by three air wings. This should be enough for me to 
launch a last desperate attack somewhere, in the 

On the Eastern Front, 1 have carefully arranged 
my attack so that an armored unit can exploit into 
Riga. It will be in supply throughout the spring. At- 
tacks in south Russia have been much more suc- 
cessful than expected; now that the Soviet armor 
has gone things look quiet. In the West, I chose to 


attack the partisans across a river: now I can place a 
BH on Marseilles, which could be very useful. But 
the arrival of the British paratroops in St. Nazaire is 
very worrying, 1 now need four lines to hold the 
German border! 

In the Mediterranean the Maltese 1-3 in Moroc- 
co has been removed as an attrition loss: rather a 
shame 1 feel— the battle of the pygmies in North 
Africa was looking like fun. 

Axis Winter 1944: A German counterattack reduces 
pressure on Riga. The front-line now runs from 
Riga to Kiev, Cernauli, Kishinev, Odessa. Len- 
ingrad is besieged. 

With Allied treasuries very tow and the Axis 
now confident of maintaining the initiative info 
1945, the Axis concentrate on destroying Allied air- 
craft. Two Soviet and three US airwings are 

The Germans recapture Marseilles from the par- 
tisans, placing a bridgehead there! They now hold a 
strong line in depth from Dieppe to Switzerland, 
and from there to Marseilles, 

Allied Winter 1944 

My advance is slowing on all fronts, as my 
forces become progressively weaker through sus- 
taining losses which I can't afford to replace. 

On the Western Front, I've concentrated on 
securing one objective, Antwerp, by means of a 
single thrust along the coast. This plan had several 
advantages over a breakthrough in the center of the 
front: (I.) it enabled me to place my advance units 
on an objective and a bridgehead so that I wouldn't 
lose my gains to attrition; (2.) the capture of Calais 
and Antwerp will enable me to Transport my units 
straight into the combat area; (3.) I'm threatening 
to outflank the West Wall; (4.) Folgore is prevented 
from making an air assault by the ZOC of my ar- 
mor; (5.) 18AB should be able to drop again next 
turn since the German armor adjacent to it is almost 
certain to remain isolated and be removed before 
my next turn. 

1 have to change directions again in the East 
because of the mass of German armor around Riga. 
My breakthrough towards Lvov gives me a good 
chance to capture this objective and divides his 
forces into two, making a German counterattack 
more difficult. However, my disastrous 1-1 attack 
on 57th Panzer has left my southern flank looking 
rather fragile, and 1 could be in trouble there. 

Allied Winler 1944: In a brilliant attack, the 
Americans advance along the coastline to seize 
Dieppe. Calais and A n twerp! British troops deploy 
in southern France. 

The Soviets achieve a large breakthrough in the 
center, taking Kiev and exploiting to the outskirts 
of Lvov. They still threaten Riga, 

The British evacuate further units from the 

The Americans and Soviets are unable to 
rebuild the five airwings destroyed last turn, due to 
lack ofBRPs. 


Ami,-.: (10): CSD Munich 

Armor (8): 19 Pi and 39 Pz Nuremburg, 2SS P* Munich 

InfanlrylJ) I Leipzig, 4 and 6 337, 10 and II 336. IS and 17 033,23 

and 29 Grai, 56 Essen. 51 Aachen, 74 Frankfurt. 84 Siuiigan 

Infanlry (2): Rumanian 2.3 R35, Finnish 2-3 Helsinki 

Infantry (I): Rumanian K35and T36, Hungarian R33 

Replacements (2): 1.28 and Q25 

Para [roups (9): 1 para Kolberg 

Air factors 13): 5 ai Berlin. Leipzig and Dresden: 4ai Siuugan; I 

Rumanian Cernauti; I Hungarian Budapest: I Kinn Helsinki 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE; 157 (builds) + 30 (offensives) = 187, 

leaving 18 

SRs: 19 Pz 10 138. 39 PzloK37, 23 inflo Marseilles. 2S>innfloT21. 2 

SS P( 10 M38. GSD IO P36, I inf lo Smckholm via 

Wilhelmshaven/ Bergen. 1-4 unused (Stullgart) lo Helsinki. 30 ml to 


50 inf and refilaccmeni [T alinn) are removed due lo isolation ; the BH 
(Parnu) is removed due lo redundancy , as is the Allied BH 


Armor (4): I U21 

Infantry 12): 10 Genoa 

Air factors (3): 5 31 Milan 

TOTAL LAS'tNDITURK: 21 (builds), leaving 52 

SRs: Folgore lolhc Hague, 1 7 inf lo 120, replacemenl (T26|lo 1,39, 5 

in(toU20. II inf 10 1.58 

Lent: 5S, 2 arm, Pol gore, 5-4 (Milan | 

Aipini and Cclcre are removed due to isolalion 


NB: Curretll Allied 101 al is 60 


Air factors (51: 5 at Birmingham 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE; 15 (buildsl. leaving 4 

SRs: 5-4 (Syracuse) 10 Rcnncs (remove BHI, Free French S-4 

(Messina) lo Cherbourg. 2 BEt to Vichy, 2 Can to 520, 8 10 TI9. 

"Palcsi" to U18 

FF8 in Portsmouth and 9 in Malla applied unils in Italy and Tripoli 


Armor (8): I Tk Smolensk 


TOTAL EXPENDITURE: ] I (builds) 1 1 5 (offensive) . 26. leaving 


SRs: airbasefViicbskllo N40. 5 J (Bryansk) 10 Smolensk. I6IOJ41, 



Airbasc (Cherbourg) 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE: 15 (Offensive), leaving 

SRs: 5-4 (Manchester) lo Portsmouth, 3-1 and M IManchcsler) lo 

Cherbourg. 22 lo <J20, airbasc (Messina) 10 Gi brail at 



SlrMtfilc Warfare Resolulion 

German) has 50 U-boals from las! year and 26 built in 1944 ■ 56. 
Allies have 10 ASW, each of which sinks 2 U-boais, leaving 36. ol 
which one was transferred to the Murntnask Box. The remaining 35 
reduce the US base bt 105 BRPs 10 71 ! 


18 BRPs left. Growth rate 50<"n ■ 9, so new base 321 * 9 = JJ0 
Conqucsl and active allies: as last year minus France (42) plus 
Yugoslavia (20), loial 190 
Toial BRPs 1945 nan: 520 


52 BRPs lefl. Oriwlh rale 20" « - 6, so new base 82 t 6 = SS 

Conquests: Tunisia (5), Algeria 15). lolal 10 

Tola I BRPs 1945 start: Wt 


4 BRPs left. Growth rale 40*t> - /, so new twxe 149 + I - ISO 

Conquests: Lebanon -Syria 151, Libya (5), Morocco (5), lolal 15 
Tola! BRPs 1945 stan; ISS 


BRPs left, so base remains al 141 

folalBKPs 1945 start; 141 - 15 (Leningrad) - Hi 


BRPs left, so base is 71 as above 
Conqucsl; France (42) 
Toial BRPs 945 start; 113 


Axis Spring 1945 

The American attack in the winter was brilliant! 
I was too confident that he had his eyes on the 
south. [ placed the 48th armor in M24 lo stop him 
advancing further along the coast than Calais. 1 
failed lo take into account that he could advance- 
after-explottation-combat into Antwerp. A foolish 
oversight. With the Allied navies at his disposal he 
does not need air wings when advancing along the 

Having given me a scare in the north, the Rus- 
sians have achieved a significant breakthrough in 
the center. Lvov is their immediate target. But a l-l 
attack near Kiev went wrong when he rolled an 
'A' — unfortunately the defenders are isolated by 
his advance so cannot take advantage of the hole 
that has appeared in front of them. Now to spring 
my Battle of the Bulge on him ! 

In the Year/Start 105 BRPs were knocked off 
the US Base, which now stands at an impoverished 
71 BRPs, less than Italy! Something tells me Ike is 
not going to win any elections! None of those 5 air 
wings 1 destroyed last turn has been rebuilt, so my 
attack has a chance. 

The Battle of the Bulge (East Front version) has 
gone very well, I threw seven air wings and every ar- 
mored unit 1 could lay my hands on against him. He 
made the bad mistake of laying siege to Leningrad 
wiih just a single line. By transporting a second ar- 
mored unit to Leningrad 1 was able to breakthrough 
and get behind Lake Peipus (pinning a Soviet 
paratroop unit) and, by linking up with a thrust in 
the center, have isolated the whole of the Baltic 
States. Most of his armor is destroyed, and I have a 
good chance of taking Dnepropetrovsk. Russia 
cannot hope to recover in lime now, so I can con- 
centrate during my last turn against the Western 
Allies! What a brilliant move! 1 am excited. 

In the West 1 have concentrated on building a 
line four units deep. I don't think he will succeed in 
crossing the Rhine, except perhaps along the coast. 
In a very strange maneuver, [ have attacked back 
across the river near Marseilles and placed another 
BH, on the beach (1 cannot use this BH as a 
seaborne supply source, since it was placed after a 
river crossing), I am determined to hold Milan and 
Genoa to the last. 

In the Mediterranean, I am preparing for my at- 
tack on Tripoli. I intend to make a low-odds at tack, 
in the hope of an Exchange wiping everybody out, 
then drop Folgore in the smoking ruins. 

Axis Spring 1945: The Battle of the Bulge... but on 
the Eastern Front! A massive German counter- 
attack takes advantage of local air superiority 
caused by those five unbuilt Allied air wings. Th irtv- 
seven Axis airfaaors aid the attack. Armor, 
transported to Leningrad, breaks out and isolates 
the Russian infantry in the Baltic States. The ar- 
mored spearheads around Lvov are knocked out, 
and German armor exploits as far as the outskirts of 
Dnepropetrovsk. A considerable portion of the 
Soviel army is isolated. Paratroops are moved to 
Constanta ready to attack Dnepropetrovsk. 

In France, alt is quiet. The German line is four 
units deep (facing two parachute units), stretching 
from the Hague to Q23, Switzerland, Lyons and 

Deutsche Afr'tka Korps, Italian 2nd armor, 14th 
inf, and CN inf prepare lo attack Tripoli al low 
odds, hoping to get an exchange wiping out 
everyone, leaving Tripoli open for the Folgore 
paratroops lo drop into the empty city from Tunis 
al the end of the turn. 

Allied Spring 1945 

The German counteroffensive in the East came 
as quite a shock to me. I had considered the 
possibility that he might Transport one Panzer unit 
into Leningrad and make a small breakout, bui 1 
didn't think that one exploiting unit could do much 
damage. How wrong I was. 

1 couldn't get enough units next to the 14th 
Panzer to attack it or push it back by attrition, so 
my units in the Baltic States face isolation again 
next turn. This means that 1 no longer have any 
chance of taking Riga. All Russia can do now is de- 
fend what it has already got. 1 had to take an attri- 
tion option this turn lo push the exploiting Panzers 
away from Dnepropetrovsk. 

Lack of armor prevented me from making a 
major encirclement in the West, despite my air 
superiority. 1 therefore concent raied on taking 
Marseilles — giving me one objective and a forward 
base from which to threaten two more (Genoa and 
Milan). Even Rome is now threatened by my air- 
borne troops. I've been careful to ensure that both 
Western Allied airborne units will be able to drop 
next turn, lo maximize my chances of opportunist 
grabs at objectives after it's too late for the Ger- 
mans to react. Needless to say, I've spent all the 
BRPs 1 could, and purchased every available British 
and US armored unit. 


I've diverted one air unit to Malta to counter the 
Axis threat lo Tripoli. If noi needed, it can be 
Transported to Marseilles (as can WDF and 30ih 

Allied Spring 1945: Soviet attrition resupplies the 
Baltic States, and reduces the threat to 
Dnepropetrovsk. Soviets SR infantry out of the 
Baltic States to a safer location. The German attack 
has thrown the Soviets off-balance. 

In France, paratroops capture Lyons and 
Marseilles, though at Marseilles an exchange results 
in the loss of two air factors and six naval factors. 
On exploitation, one armored unit reaches the 
French/Italian border. In northern France, the 
A Hies advance one hex down the length of the front, 
capturing Brussels. 

The British reduce their commitment to the 
Mediterranean even more, and build two airwings 
which up until now they could not afford. The 
Americans rebuild eight airf actors and the Soviets 


Amior(IO): USD Berlin 

Armor (II); 2SS P^ Essen. 48 Vi Q33. DAK Munich 

Infantry I J): 7 turn, 18 Stuilgart. 23 Frankfurt. 25 and 30 Aachen, 

76 Q26 

Infantry |2): Finnish 2-3 A46 and B45, Hungarian 2 -J R3J 

Infantry (I): Hungarian R33, Rumanians (Iwol S33, Bulgarian X33, 

50 inf L29 

Paratroops iy>: Breslau 

Replacement (tl: R23 

Air fad or* (3): 5 at Breslau, I Hungarian al Budapest, 1 Bulgaria ac 


TOTAL EXPENDITURE: »4 (builds) t 30(nlfensives> = 124, leav. 


SRs; DAK lo JJI5, paras I Breslau] Id Constanla, airbase (Melz) to 

Odessa), 4S V, IO Odessa. CiSD lo N35, 24 P7 lo L27, 5SS inf lo N3J. 

replacements (2 al K36I to Strassbourg and KI" 

Note for checking: No unbuilt German units 


lnfanlry{3): "Atpini" Genoa, "Celere" U2I 
Infantry 0): 17 Milan, 35 Genoa 
Replacement (I): S24 

Air factor (3): I at Spe/ia I builds up to a 5-*> 
TOTAL EXPENDITURE; 12 (builds) * 30 (offensives) =42. leav- 
ing 56 

SRs: Folgorc lo Tunis. C'N lo J J 14 replacemem (U2I I lo Met/, t! lo 
LOT, I arm io P25 

Lent: 2 arm, I arm. 5-4 (Warsaw), rcpl. (Mcljr) 
Note for checking No unbuilt Italian units 
NB; Allied total is now 404 


Armor (fi): IC Manchester, 13 Liverpool. Polish Coventry 

Armor (6): FF5 Cit'M Birmingham 

Infantry (I): "Malla" Plymouth 

Air laccors |3|: 5 at Portsmouth and London, FF2 at Portsmouth 

TOTAL EXPENDIT LIKE: 67 (buildsl t 15 (offensive) =82, leaving 


SRs: I (.arm ioN23, 13 aim to Paris, Polish to VZ2. <■ (JCM toR2c, 

5-4 (London) 10 MaJla. y-Bcet Portsmouth to Messina 

FFS (Portsmouth) and 2 + ] Messina supplied units in Sicily and 

Tripoli. BH N3" removed. 

I SM* 

Infantry 13): 7 Gds R40, 57 and 62 Dnepropetrovsk, 63 1.41, 5 Shi 

Smolensk, 2 Gds Moscow, Jslav Moscou 

Inlantry (2): 13 042, 6 J4J, 8 P4I 

Infantry III: 22 T3M. 14 S40. 26 04I, 23N4I, I6M4I. 13 K42 

Air factors (3): 5 and Stalino and N43 (airhase al N43) 

TOTAL tXPt.NDtTUKE: 63 (buildsl. leaving 63 

SRs: 24 io R43. ITk to Smolensk, 2Pr lo Dnepropetrovsk, 3 Shk to 

R4I. 9 to Stalino, 1) ■■■In 

II i ids removed due to isolation (6 Cids was supplied by BH I Kiev)) 


Armor (10): 16 USA 

Infantry (3): 5 and 23 (USA) 

Air factors (3): 5 and 3 (LISA) 

Also change 3-4 and 1-4 iParis) io 2-4 and 2-4, change 2-4 and 1-4 

(Toulouse) to 3-4 

TOTAL EXPENDITURE: 40 [builds) t I J (offensive) = 55. leasing 


SRs: 54 (USA) lo Great Yarmouth, 3-4 (USA) to Dover. 16 arm and 

5 inf (USA) to Portsmouth 23 (USA) to Plymouth. 2-4 (Paris) io 

Dover, 2-4 I Paris) to Toulouse, ly lo Malta, airbase (Cherbourg) lo 

Rjl, 10 to 022 


Axis Summer 1945 

The isolation of the Baltic States has been 
broken with the loss of two armored units from al- 

irition. In the West, the Allies have made a forceful 
attack in the south of France and grabbed Lyons 
and Marseilles. Bui (hey have only advanced one 
hex in ceniral France which is very good news. In 
the Mediterranean ihere are hardly any units al all 

Because of my substantial BRP lead, the Allies 
will have the last turn of the game, a rare event. This 
is a big disadvantage. I have therefore taken attri- 
tion options on both the West and Mediterranean 
Fronts, so that my air wings can offer DAS. Attri- 
tion in the East was poor: I have only been able to 
destroy one of the three surrounded units. My at- 
tack on Tripoli failed. His interception was too suc- 
cessful (the Tripoli fleets anyway intercepted 
automatically). The odds were too low at 1-2 to 
completely eliminate the defenders, even though in 
the eveni I did roll an Exchange. So from Tunis, 
folgorc dropped back into Italy and SRcd to the 
bastion of Genoa. As an interesting little aside, 1 
would point out thai Genoa now holds the largest 
stack the Axis can make: two 5-6 armored units, the 
German paratroops and lent Italian Folgore, a total 
of 15 factors. Every single air unit 1 can lay my 
hands on is crammed into Austria and Bavaria. 
Now 1 just sit and wait ! 

Axis Summer 1945: Germany takes an attrition on 
the East and West and goes on lo the defensive. In 
France the front-line stretches from the Hague to 
Sedan. Metz, Strassbourg, and along the French/ 
Italian border. 

In Russia, the Baltic States are again isolated, 
thus protecting Riga, and Axis infantry holds a line 
two hexes inland from the Rumanian/Soviet 

In the Mediterranean, there is a heavy naval 
engagement, as the Italian navy attempts to get 
through to shore bombard Tripoli. It fails. The at- 
tack on Tripoli goes in at 1-2, Evenso, Folgore stays 
out of the main battle ready to jump if an exchange 
destroys all ground units; but the opportunity does 
not occur. 

The Italians recapture Brindisi and Toronto: 
very few British troops are left in the Mediterra- 

Allied Summer 1945 

The last turn of the game I've simply had a go at 
any objective where I could get at least 1-2 odds. 
Aachen was my main target, but a last minute 
slroke of luck gave me Rome as well— of course, if 
the game had continued any longer, 1 wouldn't have 
held it. In addition, a suicide attack on Leningrad 
cleared the defenders, enabling me io build Par- 
tisans there, and at least giving me the satisfaction 
of seeing the Germans lose an objective, though it 
doesn't count towards my own total. 

Allied Summer 1945: The Soviets abandon the 
Baltic States entirely, but launch a 1-2 attack on 
Leningrad. This results in an Exchange which 
destroys both attacker and defender entirely, in a 
brilliant move, the Soviets then build partisans in 
empty Leningrad, thus denying the city's victory 
point value to the Axis! 

The A mer icons push through the A rdennes and 
capture Aachen. 

The British paratroops based in Marseilles drop 
on Rome at 1-2! They have only a one in twelve 
chance of success <CA,A)...but they do it! The 
British control Rome due to a last tuckv die roll! 


Armor (8): 9 Pj Frankfurt, 46 P/ Stuttgart, DAK I 28, 56 Pi K36 
InfaniryOl: il 025. 20 R25 

Infantry (2): Rumanian 2-3 Cernauti, Finnish 2-3s (luol Helsinki 
Infantry (I): 56 N27. 66 J 37. 81 Breslau, 49 L29, Hungarians (Iwol 


TOTAL EXPENDITURE: 50 (buildsl + 15 loffensiv-e) = 316 afler 

loss ol Belgium (151 

SRs: 1SS, GSD and paras (Conslanta) to Genoa, airbases (Odessa 

and Berlinl to Q25, and Q26, 5 4s (J36, Danzig. Berlin) to Q25, Q26, 

Stullgart. 30 Pz to Milan 

rile Inllossin.e are eliminated due lo 1 ,1 c k ol suppls: 21 uir, Itjliun 

replacements | Y20. AA I B|, BH (U 191 


Armor (4): 2 arm S25 

Infantry (2): 5 X22, 1 1 V23, CN Venice 

Infantry tl): 14 Livorno 

Replacement 1 1 }: Spczia 

TOT A L EX P E N DI TU R E : 1 2 (hoi ids) + 1 J (of fensi re) = 27 . Icavi ng 


SRs: airbase (535) and 5-4 (Berchtesgadcn) lo R26, Folgote to 

Genoa. 5-4 tSpezia) lo Venice- 2 arm to Rome 

Lent: Folgore, 2 arm, rep iMctz} 


NB: Allied total is now 204 

Allied builds and SRs irrelevant cscep! for Soviet build n( Partisan 

unil in Leningrad 


BRITAtN/US: Manchesier, Birmingham, London, 
Antwerp, Paris, Lyons, Marseilles, Mosul, Suez, Alexan- 
dria, Tripoli. Malla, Gibraltar, Rome. Aachen (15) 
USSR: Moscow, Smolensk, Stalingrad, Astrakhan, 
Grozny. Maikop, Kharkov, Dnepropetrovsk (g) 
GERMANY: Berlin, Essen, Breslau. Leipzig, Warsaw, 
Krakow, Lvov, Riga, Budapest, Belgrade, Ploesli, Oslo, 
Stockholm (/J) 
ITALY: Milan, Genoa (2) 
Neutral: Madrid, Istanbul. A i hens. Leningrad (4) 

Playing to Alliance rules (his gives a German Strategic Vic- 

BRPsal end of game: GERMANY 301. ITALY 29, BRIT- 
AIN 53. USSR 46. USA 43 

Final comments: 

What a cheeky lad ! Fancy snatching Rome on a 
1-2 air drop on the very last lurn. The capture of 
Leningrad was bri lliantly executed. The act ual odds 
of the i-2 attack were 11-17. 1 was defending with 
two Finnish 2-3s and one 1-4 Finnish air. With an 
exchange, 1 had to remove 1 1 faclors, each Finn be- 
ing worth 8. 1 had no choice but to remove the 
ground units, and he built partisans inside Len- 
ingrad since it was still an Axis-controlled hex! In 
effect he did something similar to what I tried at 
Tripoli. Leningrad thus ends the game belonging to 
neither side! 

This has been a marvellous game, and 1 think 
Richard enjoyed it just as much as me. In fact, it is 
the best game of Third Reich I've played, and 1 am 
delighted that we were recording such a memorable 
and balanced struggle. The German victory can be 
ascribed to the early attack on Russia, I feel; and 
perhaps lack of aggressiveness by the Soviet 
paratroops. It wasn't roses all the way: I really 
believed Richard had me by the short -and-curlies in 
1943! Now, how about a return match? Why are 
you going pale, Richard? Richard . , . ? 


I think it's fair to say that, even as early as 1942, 
it was clear that, barring extremely good luck or 
careless play by Marcus, my chances of victory were 
slight. The Russians had lost too much ground and 
the ratio of Axis to Allied BRP strengths was too 
great. It did appear, for a brief time in 1943, that the 
Axis forces were collapsing, but Marcus did an ex- 
cellent job of recovery and repair, and after that he 
was never in trouble again. 

Looking back, I can see many mistakes that 1 
made and will avoid in future games. The biggest 
one was my Mediterranean offensive. Given my poor 
position, 1 couldn't afford ihe luxury of an Italian 
campaign, which is a very difficult proposition at 
the best of times. I would have done better to con- 
centrate my forces in the West and invade France a 
lit lie earlier. In the end 1 gained only two objectives 
in the Mediterranean (Tripoli and Rome — the latter 
only just); an earlier invasion of France would sure- 
ly have given me Essen, Genoa and Milan at the 
very least, and posed much more of a threat to Ger- 



By Bruce J. Degi 

"In essence," says the introduction to 
CRESCENDO OF DOOM, "the player's 
knowledge of the SQUAD LEADER system and 
methodical application of its benefits as oppor- 
tunities present themselves, becomes an added skill 
factor ... of an experienced battlefield com- 
mander." With the COD rules bringing the total 
number of pages to an incredible 108 for a single 
game system, no explanation of the need for rules 
knowledge is, perhaps, needed. Put quite simply, 
the more rules you are fully familiar with, the better 
chance you have in any scenario. But 140 separate 
rules sections — the sheer weight is almost beyond 
comprehension. Short of "cramming" for a 
scenario like you might for some final exam, what 
can be done? In my experience with both system 
playtesting and actual play, I've found the best ap- 
proach is to study each Phase of the turn sequence 
as a unique block. Once you're familiar with all of 
the rules in general , go back and pick up on , say , all 
of the rules concerning fire, or rally, or whatever. 
Your initial impulse might be to study the Move- 
ment Phase or the Defensive/ Advancing Fire 
Phases. While those are, of course, important, I'd 
recommend you start with the Advance Phase. 

The Advance Phase?! Is he kidding? No, I'm 
not; in fact, 1 consider the Advance Phase to be just 
about the most powerful single segment of a player 
turn. More on that later; for now you'll have to ad- 
mit that there just isn't a single numbered section in 
all of the 103 pages that fully explains the Advance 
Phase. In fact, the only section that really defines 
the phase is: 

4.7 The attacking player may now move any or all of 
his non-broken infantry units one hex (regardless of 
prior fire or movement status). The hex advanced into 

may be occupied by enemy units. This is the only time 
you may move an infantry unit into a hex occupied by 
an enemy unit. 
But i F this is your impression of the Advance Phase, 
the movement prior lo Close Combat, you may be 
interested in what follows. Several unique things 
happen in the Advance Phase, but the rule books 
make you pick them out from the rest of the rules. It 
is vital for any would-be "experienced battlefield 
commander" to have a firm grasp of the abilities 
and limitations of the Advance Phase. Most players 
understand normal movement and fire — a 
knowledge of the Advance Phase just might be the 
deciding edge for you. 

I've split this clinic into seven sections: advan- 
tages, disadvantages, close combat effects, tem- 
porarily immobilized effects, mandatory rules, 
changes, and some brief applications. I'm working 
with the third edition of SL, the second edition of 
COL and the first edition of COD. Though I'd like 
to say with absolute certainty that I've found every 
reference to the Advance Phase, such a thing is im- 
possible. In fact, anyone you play who claims to 
know every rule, every change, every question-and- 
answer to the game system should be avoided — he's 
dangerous one way or another. I hope these sections 
will give you a feel for most of what can happen in 
the Advance Phase. 

Advantages: Or, Things you Mighl Want To Do in 
the Advance Phase 

(!) While you're moving that one hex, section 
5.73 allows your squad to carry "up to 5 portage 
points." A leader can carry "up to 3 leader portage 

(2) Like to have a truck but only your enemy 
has one? Check section 51 .22. It allows you to cap- 
ture his truck by moving into it during the Advance 
Phase. You could also capture a jeep in this manner 
according to 52.5. 

(3) WIRE cannot be entered during normal 
movement; it must be entered only during the Ad- 
vance Phase — 53.3. (Note, however, that you can 
move from WIRE to WIRE in subsequent Move- 
ment Phases— 53,4.) 

(4j Does your opponent have a smug look on 
his face while his squads cower in a bunker? Check 
56.22 — it stales that "either side may enter or leave 
a bunker during their Advance Phase." 

(5) Multi-level building movement is easier in 
the Advance Phase. Section 57.4 states that you can* 
not only move up or down a staircase if you're on 
the staircase hex, you can also move up or down 
that staircase if you're just adjacent to the hex. 
Both movements can be done to enter into close 
combat if desired. (Note: Section 125.3 will later 
restrict this movement one level per Advance 
Phase . ) 

Don't get too used to this one fellows because I 
have it on good authority that G.l. will change this 
capability to an either/or proposition: either you 
move into a new p hex, or you move up or down a 
level — not both. 

(6) This might be a good place to mention the 
clarification lo Section 4.7 in the Appendix on Page 
22. "The one hex advance during the Advance 
Phase may include any Movement Penalties for 
entering or leaving a bunker or entrenchment, or, 
changing levels in a staircase hex, plus the act of 
movement into the adjacent hex." Quite powerful 
if you stop to think about it. 


(7) Can you believe it? Five hundred thousand 
for this lousy T- 34 and the dang thing is immobilized. 
You can try repairs, of course, (66. J)— but you can 
have your crew re-enter the AFV only during the 
Advance Phase (also 66.3) though they're probably 
better off on foot. 

(8) Though this may or may not be an advan- 
tage, you can place your AFV crew in "CE" status 
duri ng the Advance Phase i f you wish . You can also 
remove "CE" status in the Advance Phase— both 

(9) Section 75.2 establishes the fact of only Ad- 
vance Phase movement to "enter or leave a Marsh 
hex." This will change somewhat with the addition 
of the "actual" Marsh hexes in COD. They can be 
entered during normal movement but left only dur- 
ing the Advance Phase (127.3). Entry across an all 
Marsh hexside, or all water or water-Marsh hex- 
sides must be during Advance Phase only, however 

(10) You can enter an "abandoned" AFV 
(yours or his) with a crew or squad during the Ad- 
vance Phase (90.5), but it may not be able to move 
anywhere (90. 6). 

(11) Do you thrill to the sight of Russian 
cavalry charging all those German tanks? If so, you 
may want to know that each horses' "inherent 
handler" can move the horse counter one hex dur- 
ing the Advance Phase. This is the only time that 
unmounted horses can move! (92.9), 

(12) Check sections 1 14.4, 1 14.5 and the Q&A 
for 1 14.4 on page 106, for Advance Phase on skiis. 
You may switch modes or move the one hex, subject 
to a few exceptions in 1 14.51 +2. 

(13) In a major change to the original SQUAD 
LEADER rules, the new "Concealed Movement" 
section (i 17) in COD adds a new importance to the 
Advance Phase. According to 1 17.3, concealed in- 
fantry in a building/woods hex "may move during 
the Advance Phase within the LOS of an enemy unit 
without losing their concealed status, providing the 
hexside crossed intersects a building/ woods symbol 
and the hex moved into does not contain an enemy 
unit." A major new use for the Advance Phase! 

(14) Unlike loading/unloading of an AFV, 
motorcycles may be dismounted (123.5) or 
mounted (123.51) during the Advance Phase. 
Motorcycles may also be pushed one hex during this 
phase (123.52). Later rules for bicycles (132.1 +2) 
will establish the same mount/dismount, move 
status for bicycles as for motorcycles. 

(15) Perhaps the most popular addition in COD 
are the rules for boats. Several important aspects of 
sailing -aia-SQUAD LEADER involve this phase. 
Boats can be launched only during the Advance 
Phase (128.42), land only during the Advance 
Phase (128.6), or be anchored or "cast-off" during 
the Advance Phase (128.8). 

(16) Foot/Pontoon bridges may be entered by 
units fording or leaving boats during an Advance 
Phase. The reverse is also true: units may leave a 
pontoon bridge to enter the river or a boat, again 
only during the Advance Phase (both 133.81). 

(17) Unlike paratroopers, glider forces may ad- 
vance the one hex during their "initial Advance 
Phase on the board." (140.9) Nice to know. 

(18) Afewofthe seemingly thousands of Q&As 
for the system also have some advantages. The very 
first Q&A on page 104 allows you to delay entry 
onto the board until the Advance Phase if you 
like— (4.7). The Q&A for 89.22, Page 105, states 
that a player "advancing" onto a broken unit can 
eliminate or capture it at the advancing player's 
option. Want to abandon a captured unit? Accord- 
ing to Q&A for 89.9, page 105, you can do such a 
thing during the Advance Phase. And, finally, the 
Q&A for 128.6, page 106, allows you to "debark 
from a boat on a river onto an adjacent land hex 
during the Advance Phase." 

Disadvantages: Or, Things 

You Might Like to Do— But Can't 

(1) You cannot stumble around in the Sewers of 
Moscow during the Advance Phase (27.2). That 
particular thrill belongs only to the Movement 

(2) "Infantry may not load or debark during 
the Advance Phase [from an AFV]." (31.4) As 
mentioned above, however, infantry may load or 
debark motorcycles or bicycles during this phase. 

(3) Though you may move onto WIRE during 
the Advance Phase, you may not move off WIRE 
until a Movement Phase (53.4). 

(A) Your brave paratroops lose their Advance 
Phase (and almost every other phase!) during the 
turn in which they drop (99.1). Remember that this 
is not true for glider troops however. 

(5) Pulkkas may not move during the Advance 
Phase (108.294). Perhaps the reindeer need a nature 

(6) Unless accompanied by an infantry unit, 
the "Royal Family" cannot move in the Advance 
Phase (or the Movement Phase for that matter) per 
Section 124.2. 

(7) As mentioned earlier, if you have a three- 
level building, you can advance but one level (via 
staircase) per Advance Phase, No running in the 
hallways either! (125.3). 

( 8) And now, back to the fleet. As important as 
the Advance Phase is to boats, it can also cause 
some problems. All boats are subject to Drift: one 
hex per friendly Advance Phase in a moderate cur- 
rent (126.321), and one hex every Advance Phase in 
a heavy current (126.322). Infantry trying to ford a 
river run into the Advance Phase also. Infantry 
units in the water can only move to another river 
hex during the Advance Phase, and only then if they 
do not roll a "6" on one die (126.53). And to fur- 
ther complicate boat matters, boats may not be car- 
ried over land during the Advance Phase (128.42). 

(9) A few problems also surface in the Q&A. 
Page 104, Q&A for 19.4 states (for the first time) 
that " m ovement i n t he Ad v a nee P hsse is one u n it at 
a time." One result of this ruling is that a stack of 
squads and a leader cannot advance "together" to 
gain the leader's benefit against a mine attack. 
Another problem is addressed on Page 105, Q&A to 
53.2: WIRE in a bunker hex would indeed keep a 
unit from advancing into the bunker from an adja- 
cent hex. 

The Advance Phase and Temporarily 
Immobilized Status 

(1) The general rule that "any unbroken infan- 
try unit can advance during the Advance Phase" 
does have its exceptions: those units which have 
won the Order of the TI. Be careful when you assign 
the following tasks to your squads/leaders (and be 
watchful when your opponent does)— any 
squad/leader doing any of the following gets to 
wear a "TI" counter and cannot move at ait during 
Movement and the Advance Phase of that turn: 

(a) W I R E dear i ng (5J . 52 ) regardless o f s uccess 

(b) Entrenchment attempts (54.22) regardless 
of success 

(c) Mine clearing (55.52) regardless of success 

(d) Changing building levels without a staircase 
(57.92) regardless of broken limbs 

(e) Roadblock removal (62.3); always suc- 

(f) Immobilization repair attempts (66.3) 
regardless of success, and add this one to your index 
under "temporarily immobilized." 

(g) Interrogation Attempts (120.1) leader only, 
regardless of success— add this one to the index 

(h) Sapper mine placement (136.83) subject to 
die roll, add to index. 

The TI counters can show up at the worst possi- 
ble times; be sure you understand fully that any TI 

unit cannot move, even the one hex during the Ad- 
vance Phase. 

The Advance Phase and Close Combat 

(1) Section 5.6 establishes one of the primary 
uses of the Advance Phase: it is the only time (with 
an exception or two) that you can move a squad 
onto an enemy squad for close combat. The pur- 
pose of this clinic is not to examine the Close Com- 
bat Phase, but a few die roll modifiers resulting 
from the actual movement in the Advance Phase do 

(a) Units advancing during Heavy Winds may 
deduct one from their Close Combat Die Roll 
(111.32) during that player turn. 

(b) Units which advanced during Rain/Heavy 
Overcast may also deduct one from their Close 
Combat die roll during that player turn. 

(c) Units which advance during Mud must, 
however, add one to the Close Combat die roll 
(111.71) during that player turn. And if you liked 
those you'll just love what CI. has in store for you 
in this department. 

(2) The Advance Phase, of course, is also the 
time to move infantry onto AFVs for Close Combat 
against those wonderful tanks. See the entire Sec- 
tion 36 for all the details about advancing onto 
AFVs. As a sidelight, Page 23, Q&A for 36.24 adds 
that a successful unit can not move back to its 
original hex in the same player turn, but it does get 
the benefit of the wreck. 

The Advance Phase: Mandatory 

Only one mandatory rule applies to the Advance 
Phase: Section 18.42 states that any Berserk unit 
must advance toward the nearest enemy unit in both 
the Movement and Advance Phase. The "Advanced 
Berserk Status" rules (110) modify this slightly in 
that a berserk unit cannot move unless in the LOS 
of an enemy unit, but must still move(110.2\ 
Also, berserk crews do not move; they fire (110.4). 

The Advance Phase: Changes 

(1) If you compare the "Sequence of Play" 
from the back of SQUAD LEADER and from 
COD you'll find the phrase "Remove Concealment 
counters from units adjacent to unbroken enemy 
units" has disappeared from the Advance Phase 
segment. The reason? Of all things, Infantry 
Bypass Movement rules (106.60 + 1) establish anew 
concealment loss system. An advancing unit does 
not cause an adjacent unit to lose its concealment 
status anymore. Instead, an optional "search die 
roll" at the end of the Movement Phase takes its 
place. Section 106.6 contains yet another warning 
for the Advance Phase: "A unit which moves into a 
concealed/hidden unit's hex durieg the Advance 
Phase forfeits its right to simultaneous resolution 
of close combat." If an ambush could ruin your 
whole day, read 106.6 and .61 several times. 

(2) The second major change, though quite 
subtle, is much more serious. Before the expansion 
kits, this game was SQUAD LEADER— a game 
about infantry. Even with the AFVs in the basic 
game, the Advance Phase belonged solely to the in- 
fantry. This was one advantage reserved for infan- 
try alone— AFVs could do nothing. In fact, the 
"Sequence of Play" on the back cover was changed 
to read "unbroken infantry units ..." under the 
Advance Phase. But those who drool over the metal 
machines have struck again. In an unbelievable 
addition to Advance Phase possibilities, Mine 
Clearing Vehicles now clear mines during the Ad- 
vance Phase (136.9). Most of you probably didn't 
even give this a second thought, but to those of us 
who eye every additional AFV counter with suspi- 
cion in a game system for and about infantry 
squads, this incursion of armor into the turn phase 
sacred to infantry is not a matter to be taken lightly. 
Excuse me; 1 digress too much. Sigh. 


Now that [ know where Itie rules are, 
What do I do with Ihem? 

What follows here are a few suggestions to con- 
sider when using the various rules for the Advance 
Phase. They are intended for the beginner; those of 
you with combat experience will find these much 
too simplified and incomplete. The more ex- 
perience you have with the system, the more varied 
uses of the powerful Advance Phase will become 
apparent. For example: 

(1) The Advance-to-the-Rear Phase— instead 
of "breaking" a leader to rout with a broken squad 
(see section 15.8), leave the leader where he is if 
possible and Advance him backward to the broken 
unit. This assumes, of course, that the broken 
squad could rout to the hex directly behind its cur- 
rent position. Now you don't have to worry about 
the leader "self-rallying." 

(2) Advancing units can turn separate squads 
into lethal fire-groups for the next turn's Defensive 
Fire Phase. Consider the converse — squads and fire 
groups can fire during the turn and then pull back to 
safety (perhaps even out of range or LOS) before 
the enemy gets to shoot at you in his next Prep Fire 

(3) Particularly important is the ability to move 
here without drawing fire. If you must go out onto 
the streets, look both ways, and then wail until the 
Advance Phase if at all possible. Your squads are, 
in effect, "low-crawling" now instead of 
"moving" and though they only move one hex, 
they are not subject to that terrible " -2" modifier 
next turn. The streets are never safe, but this is one 
way to lessen your problems, 

(4) Finally, except in cases where Advance 
Phase movement is specifically prohibited (sewer 
movement, cliffs, more than one level building 
change etc.), keep in mind that you are moving your 
squad one hex regardless of terrain or other con- 
siderations. Move up behind a building in the 
Movement Phase— out of LOS— then enter in the 
Advance Phase, Move over walls, hedges, gullies, 
up or down hills etc. all in the Advance Phase. You 
may find you can move a squad to places that are 
extremely difficult to reach during normal 

The Advance Phase is a powerful part of your 
turn. In many ways, the Advance Phase can help 
you out of a bad situation or into a very good one. 
Know your rules— lesson number one; use 
them — lesson number two. I'm sure that 1 have 
managed to leave something out of this short clinic. 
Literally hundreds of implications arise when you 
consider the possibilities of Ihis phase, I'll be 
satisfied if new players gained some insight into 
approaching the SQUAD LEADER system rule 
books. If you're new, stay with it — you 're struggling 
with the finest game in the history of wargaming. If 
you are an "old head" and perhaps you've caught 
an omission here, I'm satisfied also. You know 
your rules quite well. 

One final thought— if you like this approach to 
SQUAD LEADER rules study you might try the 
following on your own. Consider "Fate" — do you 
know all the implications of rolling a "2" or a "12" 
at any point during the turn sequence? How about 
everything possible that can and cannot happen 
during the Advancing Fire Phase? 1 think if 
you approach the system in "study modules" 
you'll find your game improves significantly. 
Happy gaming! 

Next time we'll take a look at moderated postal 
play methods for SL enthusiasts who refuse to allow 
the eight phase player turn to deter them from pbm. 



THE LONGEST DAY-Clarifications and Addenda 

By Bruce Miliigan 


Errata? Please don't use that word; it hurts my 
ears! Besides, for $65.00 we wouldn't dare put out a 
game with any errors in il. Printed below are some 
of the most common questions we have received 
about this game, along with some rules clarifica- 
tions, and a few itsy-bitsy items that were in- 
advertently left out or incorrectly presented in the 
original game. 


1 . Coastal battery MKB Cher does not appear on 
the mapboard, but there is a counter for it. MKB 
Cher is actually the battery north of Cherbourg 
which has no unit designation. 

2. There are extra strongpoint counters in the mix. 
They should be considered spares, and may be used 
as blank counters, 

3. Headquarters and supply units do not have an 
attack factor. The top number is the defense factor, 
and the bottom number is the movement factor. 

4. Coastal hexes are not considered sea hexes for 
[he purposes of naval bombardment. In other 
words, you may not bombard one hex inland unless 
the target is spotted. 

I.F.5. May units stack on top of coastal strong- 
A. Yes. 

I.G.I. Do units in landfronte fortifications and 
field fortifications (not ihe forts themselves) have 
zones of control extending into all six adjacent 
hexes or just the three to their front? 
A. Just the three hexes to their front. 
H.D. Are supply units affected by "LS", "LI", 
and "L2" casualties? 

A. No. Only combat units are affected. Note that 
an HQ is a combat unit. 

[I.D.l. Are units that enter the game as rein- 
forcements considered in supply on their turn of 
entry to the game board? 

A. Only if the first hex which they enter is one in 
which they can be considered to be supplied. Other- 
wise, they are unsupplied for that movement phase, 
II. D.J. Are the combat factors of units which are 
halved in strength rounded up or down? 
A. They are rounded up. 

II. D. 3. Are units in landfronte fortifications 
halved in strength when unsupplied? 
A. Yes, even though the inirinsic strength of the 
fortifications themselves is not halved. 
II. D. 3. May artillery units trace a line of supply to 
a corps HQ of another nation? 
A. Yes, in the scenarios. No, in the Campaign 

H.D. 3. Is German railroad artillery considered to 
be always in supply? 

A. No, it must trace a supply line to a friendly 
corps HQ. 

II. D. 6. Can a supply unit move with a mechanized 
HQ during the mechanized movement phase? 
A. Yes. But it may never move alone during the 
mechanized movement phase, even if it begins in a 
hex with a mechanized HQ, 

III.B.2. Can a unit with an attack strength of "0" 
still add its function to an attack for the purpose of 
modifying the die roll via the Combined Arms 

A, Yes, A remnant with an attack strength of "0" 
is still considered to be a unit, albeit with an offen- 
sive capability not large enough to be reflected in 
the number of factors taking part in the attack: il is 
still significant enough to be of value in that attack. 
III.C.3.e.l. If a unit is forced to retreat into 
another hex containing a carpet bombing target as a 
result of being carpet bombed itself, does it then 
undergo another attack? 

A. No. All attacks are presumed to take place 

IV, A, La. May naval bombardmeni be executed 
during storm turns? 

A. No. This question would not be asked had we 
not inadvertently reversed the results for ST- 1 and 
ST-2, and OV-2. Please note on your Wealher Ef- 
fects Chart. 

IV.B.5. CLARIFICATION: When attacking, 
units in fortifications are considered to have lefl the 
fortification, at least temporarily, and as such is the 
case the Armor modification on the C. A.M. chart is 
ignored for them. 

V.A. CLARIFICATION: Although there is no 
German Replacement Phase on the first turn of the 
Campaign Game, German reinforcements for 6 
June begin the game set upon the German Strategic 
Movement Track, and are therefore eligible to 
move in ihai turn. This does noi apply to supply 
units, which may not move (if on the Strategic 
Movement Track) until 7 June. 
V.A.I. ADDITION: During the Allied Player Seg- 
ment of the Invasion Turn of both the Normandy 
and the Campaign scenarios, there should be an 
Allied Reset Phase immediately following the 
Allied Combat Phase, 

V.B. When does the D + I Drop Phase occur? 
During the Allied Replacement Phase of the Allied 
Player Segment on the 7 June [urn. 
V.B.4.C CLARIFICATION: Attacking airborne 
units always retreat just one hex if forced to retreat 
as a result of drift combat. 
V.C. Can all units in a landing box attack the 
adjoining beach hex regardless of the six stacking 
point limit? 

A. Yes, but they must be within the stacking point 
limit at the end of the next Allied Movement Phase. 
V.C. May disrupted Allied units land on unoc- 
cupied beach hexes during the invasion turn? 
A. Yes, 

V.C. 12. If the defender in a beach hex is eliminated 
during the Allied Beach Assault Phase, but Ihe 
attacker is also, can the Allied player still place a 
BH marker on thai hex? 
A. No. 

V.E. Are units that are disrupted by coastal 
artillery forced to attack the adjacent coastal hex. 
and if so are they then automatically eliminated in 
accordance with the rules governing disrupted units 
which are forced to attack? 
A. No lo both halves of this question. 


V.E. Are HQ units affected by [he fire of coastal 

A. Yes. For this reason our tactical experts suggest 
thai the Allied player keep his HQ units off the 
beach as long as possible— even until the beginning 
of the second turn if necessary. 
V.E. 4. a. This rule says that all units are disrupted 
white the bombardment chart states that all units 
that land are disrupted. Which is correct, and if it is 
the latter, then may those units attack prior to land- 
ing, or may some attack while others land? 
A. All units are disrupted. Delete "... if moved 
to coastal hex." from the Bombardment Table. 
V.F. When Crocodile units attack enemy units in 
bocageistheC.A.M. total +6< + 2 for bocage and 
two times 1 2 for combined arms) when attacking 
in conjunction with an infantry unit? 
A. Yes. 

V.G.3.C. CLARIFICATION: The Combined 
Arms Modifier is doubled whenever a Crocodile 
unit is involved in combat with at least one friendly 
infantry-type unit, and the enemy unit being 
attacked is in clear terrain. 

VII. Example HI, Attack A. In the last sentence of 
this example, delete the phrase, "... and another 
half expended for the artillery support for a total of 
one full supply unit." 

IX. C. 3 Rewrite the second sentence of this section 
to read: "On the third turn, if storm would be rolled 
again, it would become ST-2 again." 
IX.E.J.a. CLARIFICATION: In the Campaign 
Game, the x3 multiple for BH hex capacity only 
applies beginning with the second turn, up to and 
including the eleventh turn (June 16). 
Units enter German Strategic Movement Track (or 
mapboard in the case of the 3 19 Division) when die 
roll is greater than number indicated. Roll once per 
turn for each unit, until all units have entered the 

IX. F.. and F. Do new Allied and German units 
enter the board in a supplied state even if a source of 
supply is not within 8 hexes o( their hex of entry? 
A. No. 

XII. B. Under the chart labeled "Bridge Demoli- 
tion Table", the third sentence in the legend should 
read as follows: "3. If Allied combat unit occupies 
one of bridge hexes subtract '2' from die roll." 


1. HEADQUARTERS UNITS: All Allied air- 
borne unit HQ's are non-motorized. All armored, 
panzer, and panzer grenadier HQ's are tracked. All 
other HQ's are motorized. 

2. The German field replacement unit in the In- 
fantry Function category with a movement factor 
of "8" should be motorized. Similarly, the German 
field replacement unit with a movement factor of 
"4" should be non-motorized. The infantry func- 
tion machine-gun company should be non- 
motorized. The artillery function parachute ar- 
tillery battalion and the glider artillery battalion 
should both be motorized. 


The two units of the 352 Division and the one 
unit of the 6FS Regiment (only!) are treated as part 
of the 353 Division when using supply rules. Also, 
130 Division Recon unit is positioned directly on the 
town of Barenton and is treated as an independent 

Scenario Two: The Falaise Pocket 

The 9SS Panzer Division is given a position on 
the map at the beginning of this scenario. This is in- 
correct. It arrives as listed in the rules folder on 
August 20th. The 2 Panzer Division should extend 
its front one hex to cover the area in which the 9SS 
Panzer Division is listed on the set-up map. 

Scenario Three: Operation Cobra 

Air units are available for this scenario as 


TAC: Full U.S. complement as listed on the 
Allied Aircraft Deployment Display. 
SAC: Allied player limited to one carpet 
bombing attack on 25 July within the 130 
Panzer Division setup area. 

Scenario Four: The Fall of Cherbourg 

CLARIFICATION: The first turn in this 
scenario is always a clear weather turn. 

SET-UP CLARIFICA TION: Ignore the single- 
unit placements of the 91 si, 243rd and 709th Ger- 
man divisions printed on the diagram, because 
these are left over from the mapboard. Use only 
those units listed in the Scenario #4 Order of Battle 
and the landTronte, minor fort, and fortified areas 
from the scenario diagram. Also, "As per Starting 
Set -up " should be inserted over t he 30t h Flak Regi- 
ment units. 

Scenario Five: Normandy Beachhead 

CLARIFICATION: For both this scenario and 
the Campaign Game set-up, units that should be 
positioned on the red -starred hexes are identified on 
the Scenario #4 set-up map. 


627 Ost: Arrives with the 77 Infantry Division 
June 8 at Redon. 







HQ/suppl>— 2 

HQ /supply— 2 

HQ/supply— 1 

HQ /supply— 1 

HQ/supply— 2 




1/897 — 2 






It/582— 2 





111/582— 2 


11/984— 2 







11/899— 4 



11/985— S 


1 [1/899— 4 


ENG— 2 



ENG— 2 



ENG— 2 

ENG- 1 

PAK— 2 

11/584— 4 





111/584— 4 

11/265— 5 



II 266—4 

16^ — 4 


H/275— 5 



ENG— 4 


111/273— 3 


629/OST— 4 

450SDR/— 2 

634 /OST— 5 




Suhnell — 2 



1 39 4 

3 275—4 

FE— 5 



643 /OST— 5 

798/OST— 5 


800/ OST —5 

823/OST— 5 

U.S. 65th Arty Bn: On Non-Divisional Rein- 
forcements Section of Allied Organization chart; 7 
June through 24 July. 

The Two German railway engineer units listed 
as arriving on 6 June are the units numbered "6" 
and "11". 

The U.S. 3 1 9 and 320 Arty. Bns. are attached to 
the 82nd Airborne Division, and should land with 
the other units of that division at Drop Zone "0"on 
6 June, Build-Up Phase. 

The three battalions of the German 91st Infan- 
try Division that are listed as arriving on 8 June in 
Brittany and also appear as part of the initial setup 
on the game board do in fact begin both the inva- 
sion and the Campaign Game scenarios on the 
board. Their place on the German unit Entry 
Schedule should be taken by the three units of the 2 
FS Para. Bn. 

The hex listed on the Allied Assault Landing 
Schedule under the supply unit attached to the 
British 6th Airborne Division should read "Drop 
Zone 'M"\ which is the mail landing zone. Also, 
the important legend "Build-Up Phase" should be 
written over the group of seven British units landed 
at Drop Zone "M". The Allied Player has the op- 
tion of instead landing these units at Drop Zone 

CLARIFICATION: On the Allied Aircraft 
Deployment Display, Heavy Bomber (HB) units #5 
and #6 may not bomb in the following movement 
boxes: Rennes, Redon. Rheims, Rouen, Amiens, 
Seine River and Paris, Also, delete "Brittany" 
from under pictograph of #5 and #6 HB units. 


1 . Artillery is not halved firing across rivers. 

2. If the combat result on an attack against a 
bocage hex is "LS", and attacking forces include 
an armored and an infantry unit, the armored unit 
must lose, at "LI ". If armor is involved in an at- 
tack against bocage in which losses are called for. 
the armor must suffer losses. 

3. On the Weather Effects Chart, the effects of 
ST-1 and ST-2 and OV-2 should be reversed. ^A^ 



SERIES 200 is a pud of I en new scenarios Tor 
CRESCENDO Oh DOOM printed on Die same 
index slock and in the same style used for SQUAD 
LEADER and its gametics. These scenarios were 
designed by CO! & COD developer Courtney 
Allen and play tested by several of the SL playtest 
groups who play so important a role in I he con- 
tinuing deveiopmenl of I lie game system. 

For those disdaining the "design your own" 
approach, here is your chance to experience more 
COD scenarios which have been tested for balance 
and constitute lop quality playing aids. Here is the 
chance to employ more of l hose special armor 
units provided with COOwhich don't sec action in 
any of the gamelte's scenarios. 

The ten scenarios comprising SERIES 2IXJ are 
titled as follows: UNDER COVER OF 
(1 939), CHANCE D'tmc AFFAIRE 1 1940), LAST 
( 1941 ), COMMANDO RAID AT DIEPPE (1942). 

SERIES 200 is available by mail from Aval on 
Hill For $4.00 plus Usual pos i age charges. Maryland 
rcsidenis please add 5°'o state sales lax. 



The Perfect Riposte to the Perfect Plan b> David Mc>kr 

Hey! Who says "Perfect Plans" are dead? It 
Ottty look five years to gel a response to my last one, 
and it comes in the form of another "Perfect 
Plan". Why, soon we'll be rolling in a veritable 
deluge of the things, I can see it all now . . , 
"Phooey on Plan Red— Part IV! 

In Vol. 13, No. S of THE GENERAL (a long, 
long time ago) our intrepid editor provided a plan 
of invasion for the Romans in the Idistaviso 
scenario of CEASAR'S LEGIONS, We barbarians 
are not particularly well known for punc- 
tuality — we don't have watches — but this at least 
keeps us unpredictable. In any case 1 have finally 
penned a response to Mr, Greenwood's plan 
(hereafter known as the Greenwood plan). On the 
whole it is a good one. The German's best tactic is 
usually to run away and avoid open battle with the 
Romans, which is especially true in the Idistaviso 
scenario. Briefly, the Germans must hold the three 
eagles captured in 9 A.D, The eagles may not be 
moved until a Roman unit moves within four hexes 
of them. Once an eagle is Treed, however, the usual 
thing to do is to take the eagle with a mobile guard 
and lead the Romans on a merry chase through the 
forests. The Greenwood plan effectively prevents 
this: by use of a carefully laid out cordon of legions 
and auxiliaries the Germans are encircled without 
releasing [he eagles, and then butchered as they 
Finitely try to break out of the Roman circle, attack- 
ing the Romans in the open, on Roman terms. 

IT only the Romans had it so easy. There is a 
basic misunderstanding of the German reaction 
(not unusual for the Romans). The German does 

not have to break out, or fight the Roman in the 
open. This particular plan forces the German to 
fight whether it suits him or not. But it is the 
Romans who must capture the eagles. Why fight the 
Romans on their terms? Force the Roman to come 
for the eagles in the forests as he must do, and fight 
on the terms of the German warriors, 

A detailed plan for the defense is difficult to 
state, for the defender must react to the moves of 
the attacker, which, at times, can throw everything 
into the air. In general, the proposed course of ac- 
tion— known as the Grtenwald plan— will attempt 
to get as many warriors as possible into and around 
the forest centered on L13 (for these purposes 
known as the Gricnwald). Basically the final result 
should have Arminius and one eagle with a forest 
killer slack (3 medium infantry mobs, I light infan- 
try mob and a chief) in hex L13, surrounded by six 
other such slacks in the six adjacent hexes. 

The initial positions on the front line have the 
Romans panting on the west bank of the Rhine, just 
wailing to stab a few Germans and burn a few 
villages (something German icus Drusus was par- 
ticularly adept at; come to think of St, that's all he 
was adept at.) . . . But seriously all that the Romans 
should find are empty villages: don't let them stab 
any Germans yet. Except for the poor Marsii chief 
who cannot get out of the way fast enough, the war- 
riors and chiefs oT the Frisii, Usipatii. and Tencterii 
should be moved east towards theGrienwald. Their 
forces should be 10-4 mobs, a number of 5-4 war- 
bands whose use will be discussed later, and 5-5 
light infantry mobs (The German will need as many 

of these as he can get.). The Rhine tribes will need 
mobility to escape the Romans. The Marsii warriors 
should be put on hex PI 8. IT the Roman is not alert 
and attacks he will have violated the four hex range 
of the Lesser C'haueii eagle. If not, the Marsii war- 
riors might prove to be a nuisance in the Roman 
rear areas, and can always move east to the Gricn- 
wald if necessary. 

In the interior arc the three eagles: the 17th with 
the Greater Chaucii in L9, the 18th with the Lesser 
Chaucii in hex PI 4, and the 19th among the Chattii 
in hex BBI3. The Romans need only two eagles to 
win, the usual targets being the 17th and 18th. The 
Germans, therefore, need only to defend one in 
strength, thai being the 18th. The 19th eagle is not 
attacked, and the 17th is abandoned to the Romans. 

Although the 19th eagle is not likely to be at- 
tacked a Roman flying column of cavalry and fast 
infantry might take the Germans by surprise in this 
area. Therefore some delaying units, 5-4s and the 
like, should guard the Z14/Z15 forest pass that 
leads to the Chattii village in AA14 and the 19th 
eagle in BB13. Either some or all oT the Tencterii 
refugees do nicely Tor this. The Tencterii chief 
should, however, move to the Grienwald. The 
Chattii chief is best set up on hex AA14. This will 
keep him far enough away from the main Roman 
advance to mobilize safely on turn three or four 
when the Roman invasion comes that way (accord- 
ing to the Greenwood plan). The warriors should be 
placed around AA14 inhere is a threat, or near XI 3 
to the north. If the northern set up is made the chief 
with cavalry should move post hasie to the Grien- 


wild. The warriors should be 10-4 mobs; again ihey 
will need mobility to reach the ISttl eagle before be- 
ing cm off by the advance legions. If they cannot 
make it use them to delay the Roman advance 
around the U 14 forest pass; the German needs as 
much lime as he can gel. 

Arminius starts in hex DD4 with the Suebii 
chief. He should move on the first turn to the 
Langobardii chief in hex Z6, regardless of his suc- 
cess or lack of it in convincing the Suebii to oppose 
the Romans. If the Suebii do mobilize move the 
chief with a cavalry escort at lop speed to theGrien- 
wakl. The warriors will have to follow- at iheir more 
leisurely pace. If Arminius fails to mobilize the 
Langobardii on turn one, leave him there and try- 
again on turn two. Then move him on to theGreaier 

Chaucii who should be reached on turn lour. The 
Lesser Chaucii chief should be placed on CI 3. The 
Frisii or Usipatii might have lo put a screen around 
013 in case the Lesser Chaucii don't mobilize when 
the Romans move into ihe region near turn four. 
The Lesser and Greater Chaucii forces should con- 
sist of ihe veterans. 11-3 mobs and 5-5 light infantry 
mobs. The German might retain a small force of 
about 15 lo 20 factors and a chief to guard the 1 7ih 
eagle, so that the Roman will not premalurely 
spring their trap around the 18th, or if they do this 
will release the 17th and allow it to escape with its 

On the average the GrienwSld plan should give 
the Germans seven or eighl active tribes, out of 
which six or seven should make it to the 18th eagle. 

The Frisii, Usipatii and Marsii can reach thearea by 
turn two, as the Romans beat the air around the 
Usipatii and Tencterii villages. The Langobardii, 
Lesser and Greater Chaucii and any Suebii, Tenc- 
terii or Chaltii should get there by turns four and 
five as the Romans move through the G 14 and UI4 
areas. The forces in the four hex range around the 
18th should approximate four veteran mobs, eighl 
10 ten 1 1-3 mobs, eight to ten 10-4 mobs, six or 
seven 5-5 light mobs, ten to 14 cavalry warbands or 
equivalent mobs, and a few 5-4 and 2-5 warbands. 
The Germans can operate in a relative vacuum 
within the four hex range of the eagles. A quick 
Roman raid may try to snatch an eagle, however, so 
the German player should set up a protective screen 
in hexes M15 and NI5 lo the north, and in RI4, R13 


and Q13 to the south. Infantry and cavalry war- 
bands do nicely for this. Put about 1 5 or 20 factors 
and a chief with the 18th eagle to beat back any 
cavalry that can break through on an overrun. 
These units will also keep I he corridor from the 18th 
eagle to hex L13 in the Grienwald open. Some fairly 
strong stacks should also be placed inO!4and N14 
to stop Roman cavalry, the only units that can reach 
these hexes in one turn and block them. The Rhine 
tribes can provide for these garrisons initially, and 
then be reinforced as other troops arrive. 

By turn eight, as the Roman completes his en- 
circlement, the German position should be set. 
Most of the troops should be in the Grienwald, 
while the garrison forces wail to move the eagle into 
the woods when the Roman assault begins. When 
the Romans do move in the screening forces will 
probably be eliminated, but they will stop any ma- 
jor force from blocking the corridor. Once the eagle 
is released all troops should move into the woods. If 
the Roman player is not careful the German might 
also be able to get the 17th into the forest with Ar- 
minius, but don't count on it. Now Arminius 
should be stacked with the eagle, and a killer slack 
of veterans, light infantry and any spare chiefs. 
Around Arminius should be six other killer slacks. 
This outer ring will only delay the Romans for one 
turn, but its major use is as a source of rein- 

The Romans should not find it easy to defeat the 
Germans in the forest. The most powerful force 
that the Romans can put into a woods hex consists 
of Drusus, two double cohorts of 9-4 heavy cavalry, 
one 7-4 double cohort of infantry, and one45 factor 
legion, which makes a total or 71 factors. Against 
regular German killer slacks in a forest (three 10-4's 
or 1 1-3's, plus one 5-5 light infantry and a chief) I he 
odds are 3-2 with no modification 10 the die roll (-1 
due to light infantry, + I due to Drusus). These arc 
not particularly good odds. The aim of the German 
player in ihe initial battles are 10 preserve iheir 
chiefs and cause casualties. Even one or two steps of 
auxiliary losses are worth two or three mobs if the 
chief escapes. The climactic battles will be fought 
on turns 1 1 to 14 against Arminius. If the Romans 
maintain iheir 71 factor force — not always a cer- 
tainty — the best odds they can gel against Arminius 
are 1-1, with one subtracted from the die roll (-2 
due to Arminius and light infantry, + I due to 
Drusus). Guarding the eagle will be Arminius worth 
3 factors, 36 factorsof veteran infantry, 5 factors of 
light infantry, and four to seven chiefs; a total of 48 
to 51 factors. If losses are traded the German can 
remove some of his one factor chiefs, while the 
Roman will have to remove auxiliary units, averag- 
ing 4 factors per step. (Note that removing chiefs in 
this manner has historical justification. German 
war leaders had no real authority, and their 
followers were expected to do no more than 
themselves. Risky or indeed suicidal acts by the 
leaders served as a great inspiration to the warriors. 
Hence for the sacrifice of a leader and his personal 
retinue losses are spared.) To cut down on the 
number of available chiefs the Roman player could 
send more than just one legion to cut through the 
outer ring. But this lends to be dangerous. Due io 
the limited availability of auxiliaries the Roman can 
only achieve 3-2 odds againsi weak German stacks 
and 1-1 against stronger ones. With the -I 
modification from light infantry these odds are in 
effect reduced to 1-1 and 1-2 respectively. If any 
serious losses occur a German counterattack can be 
devastating. Upon one occasion the Romans at- 
tacked at l-l with a total modification of -2, and 
rolled a T, resulting in half elimination of his 
forces. The German counterattack during the 
Roman turn incurred more losses, and in the 
following German turn an assault led by Arminius 
took the eagle. Although combat in CAESAR'S 
LEGIONS is unpredictable at best due to the tac- 
tical ca'rds, the Romans have a difficult task when 

facing Arminius in ihe deciding baules with only 
l-l odds and a guaranteed -1 on the die roll. He will 
have to roll hot dice and be adept with the tactical 
cards to be viciorious. 

There are some general points the German 
player should beawareof, thai are applicable in this 
scenario and others. The German should attempi to 
eliminate any vulnerable auxiliaries. These units are 
vital to the Roman for forest battles. Delay the 
Roman advance as much as possible, especially in 
the U 15 area. Every lurn Ihe Roman loses in deploy- 
ment is one less turn that he will be able to spend at- 
tacking, and hence reduce his chances of capturing 
Ihe eagle. Be aggressive — not to say foolish— dur- 
ing ihe Roman combat phase. The Germans can 
reinforce during their upcoming turn, so losses are 
somewhat irrelevant, depending of course on the 
situation. As a variant the main German defense 
could be sel up in the Teutoburger Wald (S 15 lo 
K 1 8), The site of a major victory is always a nice 
place to fight. The GrienwaTd is, however, more 
central and easier for the late arriving eastern tribes 
to reach. As a final point, should the opportunity 
arise in which an eagle can escape, take ii. Running 
away will always remain the prime strategy; it is 
only to be replaced when Roman actions make it no 
longer feasible. 

At present this situation favors the Germans. 
However, [distaviso demands a high degree of ski II. 
Both players must be alert, for in both the Green- 
wood and Grienwald plans the misplacement of a 
single important unit can be decisive. Regardless of 
the result, however, in the final, few turns it would 
be difficult io find a more hard-fought, tense and 
bloody climax than in this "campaign for the 
eagles", j, 

AH PHILOSOPHY . . . Continued from Page 2 

Association (GAM A) to reorganize the awards pro- 
cedure. Under the new system, all facets of the 
hobby can participate. The nominations for the 
various categories will be open to participation by 
all gamers. Nomination ballots will be available 
through every hobby magazine in the industry. All 
gamers will be limited to one nominating ballot. 

The -final voting will be done by members of the 
newly formed Academy of Adventure Gaming Arts 
and Design. The Academy is open to those in- 
dividuals who have made a contribution to the 
products and/or general advancement of the hobby 
in any, some, or all of the major divisions: board- 
games, miniature games, role-playing games, and 
computer game programs. It is open to designers, 
developers, authors, artists, editors, writers, 
reviewers, convention organizers, and any profes- 
sional or amateur who can prove a contribution to 
the hobby. Members of this academy will have the 
opportunity to vote for the Charles Roberts and 
H.G. Weils awards prior to Origins, the National 
Convention, through a final ballot sent directly to 
academy members 60 days prior to Origins for 
response by 30 days prior to Origins. This allows a 
more formal and dignified presentation of the 
Awards to the winners at Origins, and will permit 
the plaques to have inscribed on them the name of 
the winning person or product. This will also avoid 
abuses that have occurred in the past as a result of 
balloting during the convention. 

Membership in the Academy will cost S2 per 
year regardless of how many divisions you wish to 
apply for and can substantiate a contribution to 
(under the guidelines!. The membership fee covers 
the cost of postage, printing and awards cost. 
There is a maximum of four one-year renewals 
available, for an overall term of five years. It is an- 
ticipated that renewals will be at S2 per year also. 
All membership fees should be paid by check or 
money order made payable to the Game Manufac- 
turer's Association." 

Is this new awards system a progressive step 
for the hobby? I'd like to think so, but I have reser- 
vations. On the one hand, there is no question that 
the awards system previously suffered from con- 
stant changes in format, and doubts expressed as 
to the validity of the actual voting with charges of 
ballot box stuffing and campaigning for awards 
much in evidence. Surely something had to be 
done, but will this system be any better? Only time 
will tell, but I oppose any system which takes the 
awards out of the hands of the gamers and gives it 
to a group of self -proclaimed elitists or "profes- 
sionals" who stand to benefit financially if their 
own products are selected. The so-called recent 
Game Designer's Guild awards are a classic exam- 
ple of what can happen when voting is restricted to 
those who stand to benefit by the outcome. The 
issue becomes not one of which is the best game, 
but who among the select group of voters has the 
most friends or co-workers eligible to vote. In short, 
politics rears its ugly head. In my opinion, the only 
valid awards system is one which allows the 
gamers— the people who have access to all of the 
games and who have nothing to gain by the out- 
come—to do the voting. Although qualified to join 
the ranks of the Awards Academy, I will not do so. I 
freely admit that my experience with games out- 
side the realm of the Avalon Hill ranks or those 
being considered for acquisition by same is ex- 
tremely limited. Therefore, in all likelihood 98% of 
any votes I would care to make would be for an 
Avalon Hill product. I am not hypocritical enough to 
claim otherwise, and lest I am sorely mistaken 
every "professional" in the ranks of the Awards 
Academy will feel similar pressures to vote for his 
own product or against a major competitor's, 
be it out of greed or simple familiarity with his own 
product or type of product. 

You might well ask if you feel that way then 
why distribute membership application forms for 
the Awards Academy? For an answer, I'll fall back 
on that time honored adage: "If you can't beat 'em, 
join 'em." While I have severe doubts about the 
objectivity of the Academy— even the Academy 
openly suggests that companies pay for their staff 
members application fees; a firm invitation to en- 
courage voting along company lines— I can see no 
alternative to their plan given the general apathy of 
the public to the awards themselves. Had more 
people taken the time to vote at the various 
ORIGINS conventions, the issue of ballot box stuff- 
ing would have had less clout and the final vote 
might well still be in the hands of the public. 
Theoretically, the Awards Academy could work if 
the hobby accepts it as a worthwhile body and elig- 
ible gamers join it in large numbers. The larger the 
Academy, the less influence each designer or com- 
pany employee will have on the outcome of the 
voting for his own firm's product. The requirements 
for membership are not so strict that interested 
gamers with no ax to grind couldn't rise up and be 
counted as members of the Academy. Anyone 
who has published a gaming article or played a prin- 
ciple role in a gaming convention is eligible to join. 
The nominating procedure is still in the hands of the 
game playing public, and if enough avid hobbiests 
take the time and effort to participate, the final 
voting can be too. For this reason, Avalon Hill en- 
courages everyone with an interest in the hobby 
who can qualify for membership in the Awards 
Academy to apply. Avalon Hill wiil not enroll its 
employees in the Academy but encourages them to 
do so individually if they so desire. 

This whole subject of awards leads quite 
naturally into the "WHAT HAVE YOU BEEN PLAY- 
ING" survey we ran last issue. The response to that 
survey in terms of number of respondents has been 
quite gratifying and we plan to run it as a continuing 
feature as long as reader participation remains so 

Continued on Page 43, Column 1 

An Interview With Kevin Zucker by ai™ r Moon 

Kevin Zucker, our newest member, is also our 
most travelled staff member, having collected 
paychecks for SDC, SPI, and OSG before tacking 
AH tin to his list of abbreviations. He is a/so our 
Staunches! advocate of simulation techniques fas 
opposed to gaming values/ which puts him at 
opposite ends of the spectrum with our roving 

ARM: How did you get started in the hobby? 
KZ: Well, 1 was a bored teenager. Here was a door 
into a world created completely by one's imagina- 
tion, and therefore, completely safe. By con- 
templating the rules and map, with a book on the 
side, one could escape com pic l el y into that world 
for hours. 

ARM: You're not a teenager anymore. Why the 
continuing interest? 

KZ: The world is a no less frightening place, and 
I've continued to take refuge in that imaginative 
world; though preferably the books are a hundred 
years old. and the smell of mold, the pages rusted 
from the acids added to make them smooth, gives 
them a sense of authenticity. 
ARM: While 1 feel the world can be frightening at 
times, I'm not in the hobby to take refuge from the 
world. Is escape the only reason you are in the 

KZ: Perhaps ! can explain it better in the form of a 
fable. And I just happen to have one here. (Reads) 

There is a large auditorium. Inside the darkened 
hall, the familiar Saturday evening's entertainment is 
going on, as a capacity audience partakes the easy and 
pleasurable act of watching images on a screen, 
(Though [here is some question whether such a passive 
kind of enjoyment as reclining, neither moving nor 
speaking, hardly needing to move the eyes from the 
center, qualified as an "act".} 

However, hardly have we situated ourselves than we 
begin to suspect this is not the ordinary evening's enter- 
tainment we have expected. After some minutes it 
becomes clear that the Film we have paid to see had 
already begun before wc took our seal, and judging by 
the action on the screen, has been in progress for some 
considerable amount of rime. Our original impression, 
that we were watching a preview or a short film before 
the main feature, we have, of necessity, abandoned. 
Complaints to the management would certainly be in 
order, though it is obviously loo late now. 

Kevin Zucker 

Born: 6/26/52 

Sinned Wargaroing: 1966 

PBM hsperience: None 

Kin I Wargame: u. •■!■..- I 

Kavnrtte VVargime: pearl Harbor 

Favorite Non-Wargame: Co 

Outside liM, r; -i>: Music 

AH Designs: None 

AH Developments: Air Force. Dauntless 

Other Designs: Napoleon's Last Battles, Napoleon AI Leipzig. 

Bonaparte I: Italy, Bailie Of The Hundred !'..'. Areola 

Soon again, W'e begin to notice other things puzzl- 
ing. Here and there a few people begin to leave, slowly 
and clumsily, begging forgiveness as knees are folded, 
disrupting the peace and enjoyment of the others still 
watching. Apparently Ihese departures do nor herald the 
approach of the story's ending, as new developments 
continue to unfold. And no sooner are these seats 
vacated than newcomers arrive to claim them. 

Finally, after some hours, the house lights come up. 
During I his intermission (the proprietors maintain the 
necessity of enforcing ihese little breaks for the health 
of the patrons), a speaker comes out and offers his sum- 
mary of the action, and others follow him with con- 

iradictory opinions, and none of their talk seems to 
take into account anything which has occurred in the 
film since we arrived, or if it does touch upon a point we 
witnessed, it certainly does not add anything useful, nor 
does it explain how the various scenes bear upon each 
other or on the whole story. 

It appears no one in the auditorium understands 
anything of what the film is about, nor does there seem 
lobe anyone who has been present throughout an entire 
show r i ng . Obviousl y i t ' s loo long a fi I m f o r t hat . though 
for many of those present the film is an obsession to 
which they devote themselves to an extraordinary 
degree for an enienainment of such a kind. 

After I he rather poor attempts by the first group of 
commentators, the stage is yielded to a few veterans 
who are regarded as something like sages by the 
audience. Unlike the others, ihey make no pretense of 
explaining the recent happenings on screen, but restrici 
themselves to exchanging theories on what the earliest 
sequences of the film may have been. The implications 
of this line of thinking, as I hey suggest themselves to us 
in the audience, are in part that everything that has 
come since those earliest scenes, has been a kind of 
repetition, with variation, thereon. Still, these older in- 
lerprerers fail to explain how, if they cannot understand 
the most immediate events, they can expect to know 
anything of what came before. 

ARM: Hmmm. Fortunately, or unfortunately, 
there seems to be more. 

KZ: Well, I'll just summarize it for you. In short, 
the narrator decides the whole thing is a waste of 
time, and that the people staring at the screen are 
deluding themselves. This is where thai question 
about whether the filmgoers are actually "doing" 
anything comes back. The narrator decides they are 
all having a pseudo-experience. He decides thai 
only through "real" experiences in the "real 
world" can one gel to understand anything. So he 
leaves the auditorium and does not return for seven 
years. In thai lime, however, he becomes even more 
confused, feels less sure than ever aboul the real 
world, and even becomes responsible for some of 
the horrid and inexplicable kinds of ihings he had 
seen on the screen. So that when after seven years he 
returns to the movie, which is just as chaotic and in- 
comprehensible as before, he becomes an avid in- 
terpreter, hanging on every word of ihe sages, and 
before long he is up there with them, spinning out 
this myth which bears no relation to anything he has 
seen, and he's happy to be there. 


ARM: So you consider yourself to be trafficking in 

KZ: I think we all are. Every human being is, of 
necessity, whenever he uses language, 
ARM: Why? 

KZ; Myth is the concern of art. 1 think the idea of 
having anything to do with the arts embarrasses 
some people out there, but nonetheless I've been 
preaching that there are many similarities between 
the mathematical structure of war games and that of 
the "geometrical" arts. What I mean is, of course, 
a limited comparison of the way smal I things are put 
together to produce a larger overall picture. As an 
example, you can see how one game turn, repeated 
over and over, builds up to an entire campaign's 
duration. And though each of these game turns is, 
in actual play, derived from the same set of rules, 
each of them is obviously different too — a varia- 
tion. Let me compare it to the process of variation 
in music because music is what I know best. 1 have 
often tried to suggest musical analogies. I recently 
got a note from Tom Oleson, confiding a particular 
fondness for the Adagietto from Mahler's Fifth, 
which is, by the way, a sumptuous and heart- 
rendingly beautiful piece, though Tom thinks to 
single out this one movement is perhaps too ob- 
vious. And his appended second thoughts point to 
the problem. Many of us are intimidated by so- 
called "experts", afraid of having our sentiments 
exposed to ridicule, and acting as if we were not 
qualified to express our own emotional responses to 
art. I have brought music into the discussion so 
often in the past because music is built up in just the 
same way, with those same devices of repet ition and 
variation which we see so well in playing out a 
game. And the point of this is that anyone who is 
capable of contemplating the overall design of a 
wargame is fully capable of achieving the same 
depth of understanding in a work of art. 

ARM: Are you saying you think a wargame is the 
equivalent of a work of art? 
KZ: Emphatically not. Unavoidably, the problem 
is subject matter. Instead of concerning itself with 
the highest aspirations, it treats the basest. This is 
probably why many gamers prefer to gloss over-the 
question of what a game is about, while at the same 
time, it leaves something terribly unfulfilled in the 
people who create them. 

ARM: I feel like I'm in the middle of a forest look- 
ing for a specific tree. Can you give a brief summary 
of how all this relates to your design philosophy? 
KZ: That question is much too general. 
ARM: Okay, I'll try again. From the preceding, 
you seem to be firmly on the side of realism in the 
realism versus payability argument. Would you 

KZ: What I was trying to say in all the foregoing 
was that it ultimately becomes impossible to find 
anything that you can establish as real. 
ARM: When you design or develop a game, do you 
want people who play the game to learn something 
about history? Is that what is more important about 
game designing to you? 
KZ: Yes. 

ARM: What about the gamers who don't care 
about the subject matter of the game? Do you take 
them into consideration when working on a game? 
KZ: I want them to confront the subject matter of 
the game. 

ARM: But what about somebody like me who 
doesn't give a darn about the subject matter? Will 1 
still enjoy a game you've worked on? 
KZ: Not the first time. 
ARM: Meaning that I will the second time? 
KZ: Well, hopefully you'll learn something the 
first time. 

ARM: And that will make me want to play it a 

second time? 

KZ: Yes. 

ARM: And each time after that I'll learn 

something more? It sort of sounds like doing 


KZ: Well, I think that's why you probably might 

not enjoy it the first time because first you have to 

change your approach to it. 

ARM: I don't think I would want to play it the 
second time (or even much of the first) because 1 
don't want to change my approach, since my reason 
for playing games is simply pure enjoyment. But 1 
feel like I'm trapped in a vicious circle so I'll move 
on to something else. It seems to me, that you have 
definite moral objections to designing or working 
on wargames. How do you rectify this conflict of 

KZ: I don't have any moral objections to designing 
or playing wargames per se, but I do feel that 
player ' attitudes can be affected by the kind of 
games they play. And I think that a designer has to 
be responsible for advocating certain moral posi- 
tions or the lack thereof. His own beliefs will find 
their way into the game design whether he intends to 
let them or not. This is something he has to be aware 

ARM: Who would you consider the best designers 
in the hobby today? 

KZ: 1 don't think there is very much original work 
being done right now. Frank Chadwick. 
ARM: Didn't Dave lsby have a role in the AIR 
FORCE revisions, influencing you or collaborating 
with you in some cases? 

KZ: He and 1 sat down with the games when the 
project was first assigned to me and we both decided 
that it would be impossible to do a quick fix, so we 
really didn't change the design. If 1 had changed the 
design in any significant way I would have relied on 
Dave to help me keep my concepts straight. Dave 
did provide invaluable service on that project by 
supplying the 120 aircraft silhouettes used on the 
data cards in the three games. 
ARM: So you don't consider the changes to the 
game design significant? 

KZ: No, The changes I made were to the physical 
quality of the game. In particular, the new aircraft 

ARM: Can you give us a progress report on 
DA UNTLESS and the expansion kit? 
KZ: DA UNTLESS is in the final stages of produc- 
tion, STURMOVIK. which is the replacement for the 
expansion kit, will be out at Origins this year. 
ARM: W hat ot he r games are you w or k i ng on at t h e 

KZ: My only other active project at the moment is 
ARM: Can you tell us a little bit about it? 
KZ: It is a game that covers the entire 1813 cam- 
paign from late April to the end of October. The 
basic design is similar to NAPOLEON A T BA Y. 
I've tried to keep it as simple as possible because of 
the extent of the physical proportions of the game. 
The game has about twice as much of everything as 
NAPOLEON AT BAY. The map scale is two miles 
per hex and units are divisions with one strength 
point representing a thousand men. The map covers 
the entire theatre from Berlin in the north, to Erfurt 
in the West, through Leipzig, Dresden, and 
Breslau. The territories involved are Northern 
Bohemia, Silesia, Brandenburg, and Saxony. 
ARM: Are there fog of war or hidden movement 

KZ: Yes. Only the leaders appear on the map. The 
combat units themselves appear on the off-map 
organization displays. 

ARM: Does the game have scenarios as well as the 
campaign game? 

KZ; You can play the entire campaign or three in- 
dividual scenarios covering the Spring campaign, 
the period right after the Armistice, and the period 
right before the Battle of Leipzig. 
ARM: Since you have stated that you are trying to 
teach the players something in games you work on, 
what should a player learn from this game? 
KZ: When I was researching the subject I studied 
the correspondence that Napoleon generated dur- 
ing ihe campaign. 1 wanted to see how much of his 
time was actually committed to strategy and 
maneuver and how much time was devoted to ad- 
ministrative matters. 1 found out that he spent more 
time on the latter. 1 want the players to feel the 
limitations of time and the press of other considera- 
tions besides strategy and maneuver. Hopefully, 
they'll learn that Napoleon was not free to do 
everything he wanted to do in a given situation and 
neither are they, and that the cardboard pieces 
represent human bei ngs that have a will of their own 
which may be at odds with theirs; the more they are 
pushed, the greater the number that will fall out. 
ARM: So, the focus of the game is not really on 
any one aspect. It gives the players more of an over- 
view. Would you say that is what all operational 
level games leach the players, or at least try to teach 
the players? And specifically, is that what you are 
trying to accomplish with STRUGGLE OF 

KZ: I'm not sure overview is the right word. I'm 
trying to show people how they might make the 
same mistakes as the historical commanders. I'm 
trying to let them see what it looks like from their 
position, with all the pressures they had on them. 
As far as the focus of the design, ultimately I 
decided the most important influence on the out- 
come of the campaign was food , so administration 
is the most important factor. 

ARM: Many of the old AH games used to say 
"You are the Commander" on the box. It certainly 
seems like STRUGGLE OF NATIONS should 
have this on its box. What about SUEZ '73? Aren't 
you also working on this? 
KZ: No. 

ARM; Why don't you tell us a little bit about it 

KZ: It covers the October War ofl973 on the Sinai 
front. Units are battalion level for the Israelis and 
regiment level for the Egyptians. The game system 
is similar to the PANZERKRIEG system, which I 
am familiar with. It includes leadership rules and 
some good new rules on the tactical doctrine of the 
Israelis. The game is designed by John Prados. 
ARM: You have no idea when it will be done? 
KZ: It's not scheduled at the moment. 
ARM: Do you play games for fun or would you 
consider playing games on your own time unen- 

KZ: I don't think you've been in the hobby long 
enough to understand that after working on games, 
playing games is not fun. 

ARM; I'mnotsureyoueverreallyenjoyedplaying 
games in the first place. Since I've been at AH my 
passion for playing games has grown, not dimin- 
ished, though the type of game I play now has 
changed. I no longer enjoy many wargames; they 
are just too serious and too much like work. I have 
gone back to playing more family games, card 
games, and basic strategy games. 
KZ: I can agree with that 1 guess, to the extent that 
I'll play GO at home. 
ARM; I'm surprised we agree on anything. 



Countering the TKO By ^ O'Connor 

If nothing else, my understudy's deluge of 
articles in Vol. 17, No. 4 has livened up the mail 
considerably in recent months. Take his discourse 
on Japanese strategy in VICTORY IN THE 
PA CIFICfor an example. No! only did his "TKO 
in Three" article prompt several rebuttals (two of 
which are shown here), but it also brought a 
challenge from one Max Zavanelti of Parkridge. IL 
to put up or shut up (see letters page). Not one to 
back off from a challenge, Alan has accepted and 
will meet Mr. Zavanelti across the cardboard waters 
of the Pacific al the upcoming CWA Con in a public 
match. I, for one, gleefully look forward to report- 
ing the outcome. 

1 first became acquainted with Alan Moon's 
"TKO" strategy (Vol. 17, No. 4) when he was a 
member (and a driving force behind) the Jersey 
Wargamer's Association. At that time Alan and I 
had some lengthy discussions about the relative 
merits of the strategy. My point always was that the 
game is not nearly as lopsided as Alan believes, and 
that if the Japanese side has any advantage, it is a 
small one. Although 1 never had the opportunity to 
sit down and play Alan, 1 did play some other 
members who had adopted his methods, and I had 
some success using an Allied strategy which Alan 
neglected to list with his possible "reasonable" ap- 
proaches. He does mention it briefly, almost as an 
afterthought, but terms it only "irritant", I believe, 
and I shall attempt to demonstrate that, this 
strategy, far from being absurd or maniacal, is an 
effective Allied counter to the TKO. 

To summarize the TKO, the Japanese player at- 
tempts to cause high ship attrition while at the same 
time building up a large lead in POC by attacking in 
force into all three of the Allied "home" areas: the 
Hawaiian Islands, U.S. Mandate, and Coral Sea, If 
the Allied player responds as planned, there are two 
major battles on turn two, achieving the Japanese 
objectives. If (he Allied player sidesteps the main 
Japanese fleet and raids the perimeter, he is left 
with severe movement problems on turn three and 
faces the loss of Pearl Harbor and/or Samoa. 

In dealing with this attack, the first thing the 
Allied player must do is straighten out his priorities. 
Your most important objective for the first four 
while maintaining your own. Your second objective 
should be maintaining a positional advantage. This 
means taking and /or holding advanced bases and 
keeping corridors open so your fleet can move. 
While especially important for turns 5 -g, this objec- 
tive can be critical on turns 2 and 3 . The third objec- 
tive is, of course, gaining POC. While POC are 
necessary to win the game, they must take a back 
seat in the early turns, if the Allied player can 
achieve his first two objectives of crippling the 
Japanese fleet and gaining a positional advantage, 
the maximum Japanese lead of 29 POC can be over- 
come in the last three turns. 

To illustrate how the Allied player can achieve 
these objectives, 1 will describe my Allied strategy 
against the TKO turn by turn. 


There is not much the Allied player can do this 
turn, but some important decisions do come up. 
First, if you have a carrier appear in the Central 
Pacific and you get a night action, start a new game 
right away. If you get a day action, go for the 
marines. A US controlled Midway can severely 
disrupt Japanese planning. After the first round, 
run away as fast as you can. There's nothing more 
to be gained. 

Don't stay to fight in the Hawaiian Islands 
unless you've lost nothing at Pearl and all your car- 
riers appear there. In other words, don't stay. 

Send your Australians to help out patrolling the 
U.S Mandate and Coral Sea. Otherwise the I -Boat 
might cost you 2 POC right away. When returning 
to base, send the Australians to New Hebrides and 
the DeRuyter to Samoa. Try to get two carriers to 
Australia. Send any other ships to Samoa.The car- 
riers at Australia are to convince the Japanese 
player to use three LBA in Indonesia next turn. 


This is usually the decisive turn of the game, 
especially against the TKO, The Japanese player 
will expect you to commit pat rollers to at least two 
of your three home areas. Don't. Send the 
Australians and the DeRuyter to patrol the Mar- 
shall. Send two cruisers to patrol the North 
Pacific. Patrol the Bay of Bengal with two British 
battleships and send the rest of their battleships and 
the Hermes into Indonesia. The battleships prob- 
ably won't have any targets, but if they go as raiders 
they might not make it, and if they're not there the 
Japanese player might get cute by reducing his LBA 
commitment and sending in battleships of his own 
on raid to scare away the British carriers. 

If the Japanese player sticks to his plans, he will 
place three LBA in Indonesia, two LBA in the 
South Pacific and one LBA in the Marshalls. If he 
changes this distribution, don't be sad. You've 
already disrupted his plans. You might be tempted 
to use your LBA aggressively. Don't. Play it 
somewhat safe and your reward will be great on 
turn 3. If you still hold Midway, place them there. If 
not , and you have t hree units, put them in the Coral 
Sea . This area is worth the least of your three home 
areas to the Japanese, and they probably won't 
send carriers to oppose them. You might even pick 
off a cruiser or two in a first round day action. If 
you do end up facing carriers, don't fret. Four or 
five carriers against three LBA is not too bad a 
fight, and the Japanese are giving up something else 
somewhere. If you only have two units left, con- 
sider putting them in the North Pacific and/or 
Aleutians, where they'll be relatively safe. 

At this point, the Japanese player has a tough 
decision to make. His fleet can only really contest 
two areas, and there are now four areas in question: 
Hawaiian Islands (H), U.S. Mandate <U), Coral 
Sea(C), and the Marshalls (M). If he tries to fight in 
three areas, his forces will be just loo weak in one of 
them and he would face a major defeat (2-4 carriers 
and 6-8 surface vessels) at minimal cost to yourself 
(1-2 carriers and 2-3 surface vessels). The Japanese 
player then has six possible combinations; 1 - 
H+C, 2- M + C, 3- U + M, 4- U + C, 5- 
H + U, 6- H + M. Some of these are better than 
others, some are really dumb, but none is a sure 
winner. Let's consider them one by one. 

1. H + C. This one is a little dumb. The 
Japanese gain some POC and seal off Pearl Harbor 
next turn, but by conceding M they can't capture 
Pearl, and it leaves Samoa open as an Allied base. 
Reaction: Send four carriers to blow away the LBA 
in M, send four cruisers to each of the Central 
Pacific and the Aleutians (to save Attu), two 
cruisers to the North Pacific, and everything else to 
U. Result: Japanese net +11 POC, lose 1-2 LBA 
(one in Indonesia) and 4-6 surface ships, to your 
loss of maybe one carrier and 2-3 surface ships. 
With no chance of losing Pearl or Samoa and the 
chance of a victory by your LBA in C, you can be 
very satisfied if you face this situation. 

2. M+C. This one is very dumb. The Japanese 
gain few POC, neither threaten nor seal in either 
Pearl or Samoa, and they hand you lots of ships to 
sink. Reaction: Send three cruisers and a carrier to 
each of the Central Pacific and the Aleutians and 
one carrier to the North Pacific, Divide the rest of 
the force between H and U. Result: Japanese net 
+ 1 1 POC and lose 6-10 surface ships to possibly 
4-6 surface ships of your own. You finish the turn in 
excellent position. Don't count on any Japanese 
player picking this option. 

3. U + M. This is similar to M + C, the only dif- 
ference being the Allies have a slightly worse posi- 
tion with U blocked. Response is the same, with the 
U forces in combination #2 going to C this time. 
Once again, don't count on it happening. 

4. U + C. This isn't too bad a move. It threatens 
to capture Guadalcanal, New Hebrides and Samoa 
by encirclement on turn 3. The problem is it lets the 
American fleet run wild while the Japanese carriers 
have to face LBA. Reaction: Similar to that to 
H+C, but send the U forces to H instead. Result: 
Japanese net +11 POC and lose 1 -2 LBA and 4-6 
surface ships to your loss of maybe one carrier and 
2-3 surface ships, and H is unblocked for turn 3. 

5. H + U. This might be the best Japanese 
choice. It avoids any LBA in C, blockades Pearl 
next turn and threatens to take Samoa. Reaction: 
Send four carriers to M, one carrier to the North 
Pacific, four cruisers to each of the Central Pacific 
and the Aleutians, and everything else to C. 
Results: Japanese net +9 POC, lose 1-2 LBA and 
4-6 surface ships to your loss of maybe one carrier 
and 2-3 surface ships. Unfortunately, the Allied 
position is not very good, with both H and U 
blocked, but with a carrier and maybe six cruisers 
based at Dutch Harbor and everything else at 
Australia, things aren't too bad. This option should 
make a fairly even game. 

6. H + M. This is also a pretty good choice, 
transforming the opening into a straight push to 
capture Pearl, The only problem is the Japanese 
ships in C and U are wasted, and will probably be 
sunk. Reaction: Send three cruisers to the Aleu- 
tians, one carrier and three cruisers to the Central 
Pacific, one carrier to the North Pacific and divide 
everything else between U and C. If you have five 
carriers to start, put two in C because there the 
Japanese can run away easier. Result: Japanese net 
+ 9 POC, lose 6-10 surface ships to possible 4-6sur- 
face ships of your own. While Pearl is threatened, 
you'll have plenty of LBA next turn to defend it, 
and your position is not too bad. Once again, a fairly 
even game. 

While all this is going on, send all the British car- 
riers into Indonesia. You're really not serious about 
controlling the area. Your goal is basically to 
destroy one LBA, The reason for attacking this turn 
and not waiting for the other carrier is that by 
waiting you waste at least five shots, the ships you 
use now may well only be disabled and can return 
next turn anyway, and it's possible the Japanese 
might temporarily abandon Indonesia next turn 
and put their LBA to better use elsewhere. In the 
battle, concentrate all your shots on one LBA at a 
time. It's very frustrating to roll two hits on 
separate LBA and get three damage points on each. 
You might as well not have bothered. Stay and fight 
as long as you can. Note that British losses were not 
considered in evaluating the Japanese options 
above, because the British tosses are the same for 
each, and they're expendable anyway. You really 
don't have much to lose here, and if you can kill two 
LBA, the Japanese player is hurting. 


If your own LBAare facing carriers in the Coral 
Sea, and Samoa or Pearl are threatened with capture 
next turn, go for a night action and withdraw. 
You'll do better next turn with all six units together. 
If you do fight, on the first round put one unit on 
each of the weakest armored carriers to try to get 
some kills. If after one round you're still out- 
numbered, withdraw and save yourself for next 
turn. With normal luck you'll have lost one LBA 
and sunk one carrier, which is not a bad trade. 

If the Japanese player does decide to fight in 
three areas, concentrate your forces in only one. 
The three areas will probably be M, H and U, since 
your LBA in C will be a match for any three carrier 
force and will thus be avoided. Your best bet is 
either to go into M, in order to rescue your three 
cruisers which are already there, or H, in order to 
save Pearl, unblock the area and have a decent 
chance for a night action. Even U isn't bad, because 
there you'll have an even chance for a night action, 
and after killing three Japanese carriers this turn 
your six LBA can probably protect Pearl next turn. 
In any case, you're not in bad shape. 


The actions taken this turn are of course heavily 
dependent on what happened in turn two, but in 
general the Japanese will have lost about six surface 
ships and two LBA and will have blocked either U 
or H with control, while you will typically have lost 
one carrier and three surface ships. Only one of 
either Pearl or Samoa should be threatened with 
capture, since if the Japanese controlled both then 
you should have controlled the Marshall, thereby 
screening Pearl. Whichever one is threatened, de- 
fend it with all your LBA. Six LBA units can give 
even ten carriers a heck of a fight, and even if they 
lose {which they will about 80% of the time) they 
can make it very expensive, probably sinking 3-4 
carriers and forcing the Japanese player to leave a 
lot of openings elsewhere. 

If Pearl is unblocked, look for a chance to use 
your marines aggressively this turn. That way they 
get to return and invade again on the crucial fifth 
turn. Midway can be an inviting target. 

If there are any British carriers left, go into In- 
donesia again as on turn two and try to knock off 
some more LBA. Every one off the board forces 
your opponent to give you ships to sink. 

Don't spend too much raiding the Japanese in- 
terior. Any raids should be used to keep the 
perimeter open. If convenient, maintain a northern 
threat with a few cruisers based at Dutch Harbor. 


This turn the situation should be a little more 
stable. You'll probably have a little more freedom 
of movement than on turn three. Now is the time to 
raid the Japanese interior and to start thinking 
about POC, although your chief objective should 
still be sinking Japanese ships. Be conservative with 
your marines this turn. Having three next turn can 
be handy. 


Now is the time for the big push. Go for posi- 
tion. If you can hold Guadalcanal and/or Midway 
and open up the Central and/or South Pacific, 
you're in fine shape. At the end of your turn try to 
base battleships at Midway and Guadalcanal, and 
send any carriers you have left to Australia so that 
next turn they can hit Indonesia. 


These are the turns to make up the 20-25 POC 
you're probably down. It can be done. If you have 
been successful so far, you should be able to at least 
raid every area, and the Japanese player should be 
able to oppose you in only two, one with LBA, one 
with his fleet. If he keeps Indonesia and the 


Option 15: The USN Strikes Back 

by Grady Hendrix 

Alan Moon's "TKO In Three" is an interesting article. It prompted me to test his TKO strategy 
against what 1 will call Option 15 and compare its viability with the "Hawaii Strategy". Alan and I agree 
totally on turn 1, but little from then on. By turn 5. the UN could accumulate the 29 point maximum yet 
still lose. Conversely, the UN could have only 20 points on turn 5 and still win — if the attrition has been 
favorable. My point is the USN should be most concerned with: I. maintaining the fleet; 2. denying the 
UN bases, (especially Guadalcanal); 3. limiting UN victory points. This is the flaw in TKO— the USN 
can ignore victory points early in the game and lay waste to the exposed UN fleet. 

Let's assume the following turn I results: 1.) + 7 UN POC; 2.) British in Indonesia sunk; 3.) Midway 
captured; 4.) six BB's and two C'A's destroyed at Pearl Harbor; 5.) both Allied land based air (LBA) 
destroyed; 6.) no USN CV losses; and 7.) no UN losses. All of these assumptions except number 6 favor 
the UN, but I believe this to be a representative first turn. 

Option IS 

The UN uses the TKO opening forhispatrollers and LBA on turn 2. The USN now employs Option 
15, Place twoCA'sin the North Pacific on patrol, both LBA sequestered in Bay of Bengal together with 
two or three British patrollers, flip all other ships to "raid". This done, the USN has l5CA'sandBB"s, 
and fiveCV'sas raiders. If the UN evenly divides his remaining ships and sends half to Hawaii and the 
rest to US Mandates as Alan suggests, he will have ten surface ships in one area and eleven in the other. 

Assuming one CV from Japan makes a successful speed roll, the UN will have five CV's in each 
area. The UN can be outnumbered almost 2 to I in surface ships in either area; CV hulls are equal. If the 
USN attacks in either area with his entire fleet and gets a night battle the UN is cold meat, A day battle, 
more likely of course, is much better as far as the UN is concerned. With five CV's present on both sides 
luck becomes critical. The USN wil probably be rolling more dice and will have a slight advantage, 
however, the UN is happy to exchange CV's at this early stage. It is impossible to accurately predict an 
outcome, but for the sake of argument, lei's say each side loses four CV's. Alter such a result the UN 
should withdraw, and since the USN BB's are too slow to pursue, the USN should lei them go. 

Admittedly I his situation does not look good for the USN. Eighty percent of his CV's sunk, the UN 
with bundles of POC. However, the USN now has six LBA and with the attrition the UN suffered on 
turn 2 in CVs. taking Hawaii will be difficult. Or course, if the major battle on turn 2 took place in 
Hawaii, It's already safe Trom conquest by isolation. But if the battle was in US Mandates, leaving the 
Hawaiian Islands area UN controlled, Hawaii is in jeopardy. On turn 3 Ihe UN will have seven or eight 
CV's consisting of 21-24 air factors to assaull Hawaii. Once again Lady Luck will decide but the LBA 
have a definite advantage against a less than full strength UN CV force. The UN would be very for- 
tunate to win in this situation and would be wise to forget Hawaii. 

Therefore I do not believe the UN can afford I o split his fleet into two areas when faced with Option 
15. Alan assumes that the USN will send eight to eleven ships on patrol in turn 2 in response to TKO. But 
by sending out only two, Alan's entire plan is in peril. This gives the USN a crushing surface advantage. 
Absurd, Alan? If the USN uses Option 15, the only logical thing todo would betosendall surface ships 
to Hawaii, possibly a few CVL's to the US Mandates, and the rest of Hawaii. However, this leaves the 
ships in the Coral Sea and US Mandates vulnerable. All ol this boils down to risks that need not be 

The Hawaii Strategy 

The UN can hold the perimeter and attack Hawaii on turns 2 and 3, seeking capture of Pearl Harbor 
by isolation. By massing the UN in Hawaii on turn 2 the USN can not really afford to contest it. On turn 
3 the six LBA will be in Hawaii, but against the entire UNCV force they should not hold it. The UN sur- 
face superiority will make the USN think twice about moving ships into Hawaii on turn 3. The UN can 
abandon Indonesia on turn 3 and place three LBA each in South Paciic and Marshalls to secure the 
perimeter. Admittedly the TKO will gain more POC in the first three turns, but by using the "Hawaii 
Strategy" you destroy the US Marines which arrive on turn 3, and cut the USN ofr from the entire 
northern part of the board. Your POC gains on turns 4 and Swill be higher than they would be using 
TKO. All of this and the only real risk you lake is exposing your CV's to the LBA on turn 3. You're go- 
ing to fight i he LBA either way, so why expose your fleet to a possibly disasterous surface battle? By 
keeping your CV's together, the USN will be hard-pressed to attrition them to the point where his LBA 
can hold Hawaii. 

The best way for t he UN to counter Option 15 is to not allow' the USN to use it, period. By attacking 
Hawaii only, in mass. Option 15 is mill, void, and prohibited by law. 

Japanese Islands, and you control everything else, 
you gain seven POC a turn, which would make it 
close. If he spreads himself any thinner, his fleet 
will only go faster. Keep pushing for advanced 
bases. You should be able to get Lae. If you can, the 
capturing of the Phil li pines can be decisive. If you 
have a "safe" area (screened from raiders), patrol it 
with a slow or damaged battleship and use your 
LBA aggressively. The game will probably come 
down to one huge battle in the Japanese Islands, 
which you should be able to win. In any case, count 
POC every turn, keep battleships in a position 
where they can patrol forward areas, and make sure 
you play aggressively enough to win. 



A completely rewritten set of rules for 
AFRIKA KORPS which replaces the old 
rulebook, battle manual, combat results table, 
and situation card is now available from our parts 
depl . for separate mail order purchase for $4.00 
This new rulebook does not alter play of the game 
in any fundamental way— it merely attempts to 
clarify I he ru les of I he game and dispose of i he few 
ambiguities that have plagued AK players for 
years. Maryland residents please add 5% state 
sales tax. 



Once Again Into the Fray of Russian Campaign Opening Setups 

By J. Richard Jarvinen 

The original Viipuri Defense (see GENERAL, 
Vol. 13, No. 6) was the result of several months 
work and playtesting some years ago and stood me 
in good stead in the occasional RUSSIAN CAM- 
PAIGN games 1 was able to play. Unfortunately it 
did suffer from several flaws, the most notable 
being hex W25, which Rob Beyma so convincingly 
pointed out in a Series Replay (GENERAL, Vol. 
16, No. 4). A few months following that embarrass- 
ment, another German PBM opponent took advan- 
tage of an error in the Western Military District. 
After overrunning three key units (see Diagram 1), 
he poured in armor units from other sectors and 
breached the Dvina on turn 1 ! 

Needless to say, I went back to the drawing 
board and emerged several weeks later with a new 
Viipuri defense, one which takes care of the 
previous two mistakes and hopefully precludes any 
new ones. In the playtests since that time, no oppo- 
nent has been able to tackle the Dvina or Bug rivers 
until the second turn, a concept I consider essential 
to any viable Russian defense. 

In the central sectors, Viipuri II is characterized 
by a solid wall of strongpoints. the most significant 
feature of which is that all of the front line units can 
be attacked from only two hexes, save those units 
on N23 and 024 (see Diagram 2), Thus it is physically 
impossible to overrun any point on the line from 
H20 to S25, except of course, those units on N23, 
S25 and 024. Overrunning N23, however, costs a 
minimum of 3 5 factors and one Stuka while gaining 
practically no definite advantage. The woods at 
M20 effectively stop any armored penetration, 
while the deepest that regular infantry could then 
reach by the second impulse is only Ml 9. The 
defenders on L22 can now be turned but only over- 
run using another 42 factors, leaving a mere 4 fac- 
tors from Army Group Center to carry on the war in 
the second impulse. A particularly paranoid Rus- 
sian may want to switch the units on J21 andL22to 
prevent this second overrun, but I prefer the slightly 
stronger group at J21 . 

Diignm I: Western Military Group Overrun: June Ml , 

i 2: VIIPURI It— Ball it. Western and Northern Kiev sectors 

The 5th Infantry at 024 in the Kiev Military 
District can also be overrun in the first impulse but 
again the gains for such a move are minimal. The 
German would then be forced to use a second Stuka 
to attack the two 5-3s on S24 and S25 to ensure 
breaking the line. The mountains at T24 and T2S 
now effectively stop any 2nd impulse advance ex- 
cept for the one German mountain unit present at 
the start of the game. 

In either of the above possible overruns, the 
German must use far too much airpower and man- 
power to justify the small penetration gained. Thus 
he will undoubtedly settle for direct frontal attacks 
along the sector, hoping to maximize Russian 
casualties. But now assume you lose all those front 

line units (see Diagram 3). Another solid line 
presents itself to the invaders. The only possible 
way for deep penetration is now to overrun the 10th 
Infantry on K20 at a cost of 50 factors. Again the 
returns for such an attack seem minimal. The Dvina 
River still could not be reached, while 50 factors 
against one 5-3 is a definite case of overkill. 

i 3: VIIPURI II— Second Impulse Defense Line. 

The positions of the units in the Baltic Military 
District remain as they were in the original Viipuri 
defense but specific unit positions have been 
changed. The 6-3 1 1th Infantry has been rotated to 
the front line position to face Army Group North. 
While this tactic causes the expected loss ratio to 
jump from that of the original defense, it causes 
additional problems for the German that cannot be 
ignored. If the German commander does not wish 
to use a Stuka against the 1 1th Infantry, hecanonly 
achieve 4-1 odds and thus risk a mildly disastrous 
Contact result. If he does use a Stuka to ensure a 
breakthrough at 5-1 or better, it constitutes con- 
siderable waste of his airpower. He only needs one 
additional factor to raise his attack strength to 30 
(in order to ensure a 5-1), but Stukas can be used 
much better by raising normal 2-1 attacks to 5-1; 
thus using a Stuka against the Baltic defender robs 
other areas of his most potent offensive weapon. 

The northern area of the Kiev Military District is 
defended similar to the Western Military District, 
only now it is the mountains rather than the woods 
that are used to advantage. The major problem is to 
prevent an incursion along W25 by armored 
members of Army Group South (one of the decisive 
factors in my loss in the Series Replay). Since the 


No. 1: 

i4s Kiev Army Hanked; June '41 

key to such a German tactic is to overrun a weak 
unil on Y25, thusgiving access to W25(see Diagram 
4), the solution is to put a unil on Y25 which could 
not be overrun (see Diagram 5/. The 9th Infantry 
nicely Tills this slot and completes the solid from 
line defense. Note that overrunning only one of the 
units on AA25 or BB25 will not open a hole in the 
Odessa District and since both cannot be overrun, 
the defense is intact. 

Diigcim 5 VI1PURI II— Southern Kiev, and Odessa Districts. 

The only remnant left unchanged from the 
original Viipuri defense is the Finnish front. While 
it has been pointed out that the 7th and 23rd Infan- 
try (on CIO and B9 respectively) should exchange 
places as the doubled 4-3 is as effective as the doubled 
5-3 in holding off the Finns, I still tend towards the 
original setup. This might be more from nostalgia 
than common sense, but it does have the advantage 
of setting up the Viipuri Trap (see original Viipuri 
defense) against the careless or greedy German. 

The major drawback to a solid front-line 
defense is that casualties tend to be very high. But if 
German penetration can be effectively retarded on 
the first turn, a minimum of units can present two 
nicely doubled river lines for the German to con- 
sider in July and August. In particular, the hexes 
Riga, HI6, J15. L14, V22, AA21 and DD22 should 
be occupied. Surviving units from the first turn who 
can't really escape to safe areas should be con- 
sidered at PIS, U24 and Odessa. 

In my opinion, the third turn is generally when 
the Russian should consider giving up vast amounts 
of space. With normal weather, the German will be 
unlikely to get any cheap shots against any cities 
with production centers except for Kiev. The ensu- 
ing winter can be used to consolidate forces and 
make local counterattacks in threatened areas. 

Hopefully the readership will find Viipuri II 
more saisifying and endurable than the original 
Viipuri. Improvements and changes are bound to 
occur and I invite all /ft/SS^/VC^M/M /ON en- 
thusiasts to share their views and criticisms, their 
pet defenses and favorite tricks. THE RUSSIAN 
CAMPAIGN is a fascinating game and the more 
discourse that occurs, the more rewards that we 
players reap in pursuing one of life's little pleasures. 
To that end, any one wishing to take me on in 
another PBM Series Replay can write me at: 4040 
SW West Hills Rd., Corvallis, OR 97330. 


bv John Curtin & Alan R. Moon 


It was our anniversary. I'd really put oul this 
year. Bought her flowers AND candy. 

As I opened the front door, 1 saw the dining 
room table. It was just as I'd expected ii to be. 
Laid out like royalty was coming. Centerpiece. 
Candles. The good china her mother had given us 
as a wedding present. The good silverware her 
grandmother had given us as a wedding present. 
The cloth napkins her aunt had given us as a wed- 
ding present. The fondue set her greai aunt had 
given us as a wedding present. Etc. I walked into 
the kitchen ready to accept a big hug and kiss. And 
after that, who knew, maybe dinner would have to 
wait awhile. 

1 knew something was up though, when I saw 
thai familiar, sad look on her face. "What hap- 
pened? Did you burn the dinner? Is the checking 
account overdrawn again?" 

"Worse than thai", she replied almost in a 
whisper, "The latest issue of THE GENERAL 

"You're kidding, it's early. Where is it?" 

"1 won't tell you. It's our anniversary." 

"1 don't want to read it tonight. I just want to 
see what's in ii?" 

"You promise?" 

"Yes. Of course. Where is it?" 

"1 put it underneath the bills. 1 knew you 
wouldn't look there." 

1 ran into the den. There on the desk beneath 
the bills was my magazine. 1 picked it up, without 
disturbing the bills. I sai down and began to read. 

"Dinner's ready", she said from the doorway, 
having followed me into the den. 

"Okay, I'll be right in." She left. 

I went into the dining room, magazine in hand 
and sat down. 

She came in. "You're not going to read it at the 
table, are you?" I ignored her. "Don't Torgei 
about your bib. Remember last time you spilt the 
beef juice over your shirt. 

"And the magazine", I included. 

"It look me three washings to gel the stain out 
of your shin." 

"I couldn't find out who won the SERIES 
REPLAY till the next day when 1 drove to 
Baltimore and boughl another copy. 

After dinner, 1 got down to some serious 
reading, sitting on the couch. When I got to Tom 
Oleson's ANZIO article, I had to break out the 
game and set up the new scenarios. 

About nine, my wife came out of the bedroom 
wearing a new, baby doll nighiie and a very seduc- 
tive look. "When are you coming to bed, hand- 
some?", she purred huskily as she cuddled up 
against me. 

"Not long, darling, I just want to see how this 
strategy works out." 

"Allright. I'll be wailing for you, bul please 
hurry", she moaned as she swooshed away. 

What seemed like minutes later, she stormed 
back in. She was still wearing the nighiie, but her 
expression had changed. 1 glanced al the clock and 
saw it was ten after eleven. 

"Do you know what time it is?" 

"No honey, but why don't you go back to bed 
and I'll be right in." 

"Enough is enough. I fell asleep waiting for 
you. That's it." She was standing on the other side 
of i he coffee table now. Suddenly, she scooped up 
the map and pieces, grabbed THE GENERAL, 
and marched out. 

1 was thunderstruck. Was this ihe meek, little 
gal I'd married seven years ago? The shy, innocent 
minister's daughter? 

My thoughts were interrupted as I heard (he 
awful, snarling sounds of the garbage disposal in 
action. I ran into the kitchen. 

Too late. I watched in horror as the last of my 
ANZIO pieces went down the drain. Rooted in 
place, I stood by helplessly as next she took out the 
butcher knife, waved it at me, and then began to 
chop the board to pieces. She ihen dumped it into 
a pot and set it afire, and began tearing oul ihe 
pages of THE GENERAL, throwing them onto 
the blaze. All the pages gone, she began to cry and 
ran out. 

As I opened the refrigerator in the glow of the 
blazing GENERAL, to see if we had any marsh- 
mallows, I couldn't help but wonder what the 
fealure article in the next issue would be. 



AH PHILOSOPHY . . Continued from Page 36 

high. The results of the survey were not as surpris- 
ing. We fully expected to dominate the results and 
were proven correct even beyond our expecta- 
tions. However, we do not delude ourselves into 
thinking these results would hold true in any other 
magazine. All magazines have a built-in bias among 
their readership. Regardless of the editorial policy 
adhered to. over a period of years the circulation 
will tend to be shaped as a group which more or less 
agrees with that policy: dissenters having allowed 
their subscriptions to lapse. This is true even for 
those magazines who proclaim themselves to be 
"neutral" observers of the hobby. Such journals 
must still have an editor who sides visibly to some 
degree to either the simulation or gaming side of the 
hobby. Those 'zines published by a game com- 
pany, such as THE GENERAL, have even less claim 
to objectivity. Obviously the people who subscribe 
to THE GENERAL do so because they like Avalon 
Hill games. Just as obviously, they are going to 
react favorably, as a group, to any type of rating 
system which compares AH products with those of 
other companies. To claim otherwise would be ex- 
tremely hypocritical. For that reason, we have 
avoided sponsoring our own awards or rating 
system in the past. Even if we encouraged othef 
magazines to take part in the voting, the over- 
whelming input would come from the response of 
our own readers. To engage in such a practice 
would be nothing more than a thinly veiled self pat 
on the back. 

If nothing else, the "WHAT HAVE YOU BEEN 
PLAYING" survey has proven this premise beyond 
a shadow of a doubt. Although over 200 games 
from dozens of different manufacturers were listed 
among the hundreds of responses we received, 
only one non-AH title was found in the top 20 
listing. RISK, a Parker Brothers product, did 
manage to place 2 2 nd but one then had to go all the 
way to 36th place to find another non-AH title 
(SPl's WAR OF THE RING). So, what good is it if the 
survey is obviously so biased? Why continue it? 

Well, for starters, it appears to be a popular 
feature. As long as it holds your interest, we'll con- 
tinue to run it. Secondly, it can be a viable tool for 
use in determining what games we should give 
more space to in THE GENERAL. Based on the initial 
survey we shouldn't allow any issue to go by 
without some type of SQUAD LEADER article. We 
could have figured that out simply by the sales 
figures, but how do we explain the high rankings of 
TRC whose sales figures have never been anything 
to brag about? Similarly, we can benefit from long 
term studies of trends in game popularity to deter- 
mine just how much the newness of a title in- 
fluences its popularity, as well as the validity of in- 
vesting additional resources into redesigns or 
second editions of older games approaching 
"classic" status. 

This is probably a good place to clarify a few 
points about the mechanics of the "WHAT HAVE 
YOU BEEN PLAYING" survey. You can list only 
three games regardless of how many you have 
played in the past two months. You can list less 
than three if you haven't played that many. Listing 
SLCOI-COD counts as a single vote for SL unless 
you list them separately - one title per line. 

Lastly, I regret to report that for the first time 
in seven years THE GENERAL will not be able to 
supply its readers with a preregistration form for 
the national convention. The Pacific ORIGINS 
sponsors have informed us that they are unable to 
provide this information to us in time. As of this 
writing they have not even provided us with an 
advertisement. We suggest interested readers 
write directly to the address listed in our Conven- 
tion Calendar (page 471 to request preregistration 
material. Jl 


He kne« exactly what the report would say even 
be fort" he read it. Space Amoebas had been 
spoiled in his sector. 

Report* like I his had been Handing into federa- 
tion headquarlers the past week from all corners 

Ik galaxy, but he had hoped ihe amoebas 
wouldn't have gotten [his far so quickly. As cap- 
tain, he knew his first responsibility was the safety 

is scow ship .uid his cre« | vere 

immediate— change course toward the nearby 
sun. Space amoebas tend (void the 

deleterious effects ol heat on their prolopla 

The scout's mission was to protect valuable 
resource planets in this solar system, ft was 
especially important now, for the federation's 
Space I ord wa>. preparing a major offensive to 
capture the seven inner solar systems of the Em- 
pire. In the very center was the great planet. 
Saestor. Here, ihe Empire had hegun and pros- 
pered, spreading out until it ruled the entire 
galaxy. After many millcnia of peaceful and 
prosperous government, complacency and 
negleci had inevitably begun undermining (he 

Then Ihe amoebas came. Nobody knew where 
ame from or wh) they came, Inn ilicre was 
no mistaking their pi big as planets, 

their monstrous pseudopods engulfed anything 
trayed into liteir path. Ai one time, ihe Em- 
pire would have easily driven ihem away. Nom ii 
was too late. As a lasl ditch effort, the Empire's 
super-dreadnoughts were converted into Dooms 
tines and launched againsl the one- 
celled monsiers. They immediately went mil ol 

rol, however; and drilled aimle 
throughout the galaxy destroying anything ihey 
came in coniaci wilh. The Empire collapsed. All 
that had been was gone. Survivors were forced to 
flee to 

I rom (he ashes ol destruction emerged a new 
spirit. Small federations began springing up as 
havens tot these last remnant-. ol civilization, 
Here Ihe Space 1 orcls rose It* power. Each had 
the same goal— to recapture the inner systems 
and return the galaxy to peace and order. 

Reflected off the Seoul's silver body, ihe suns 
rays shone ill rough the blackness ol space into a 
pale, trail.' I row Ol it Then 

no time to change course. No warning. The scout 
disappeared into the soft, absorbing body Of the 

Amoeba Wars is a fast, c\eilint> game ut eulactie 

struggle tor two to sis players. Game iimc 

<ges heiween one and three hours. Each 

t assumes the role of a ■ i Hisob- 

capture Saestor. the old capital of ihe 

Empire. Noi onl) musl he be prepared to battle 

the Space Amoebas, but tie must also be ready lo 

fight competing Space Lords to win. Good plan 

ning and calculated risks must he utilized to lake 

Saestor. Bui be careful, a marauding Doomsday 

Machine may appear ,11 any lime to disrupt any 

laid plans. 

Amoeba Wars is nol a simulation, but it is one 
heekuva game! We present, with pride, a truly 
innovative fanias; game easily learned, yet subtle 
in strategy of play. 

Amoeba Wars comes to you complete with large 
lull color mapboard ol the Empire Galaxy; deck 
ot power cards; playing pieces representing space 
amoebas, doomsday machines, scoul ships, bat- 
tle cruisers, pairol ships, battle siurs, and dread- 
nought >f playing aids. 

Fans ot Gary Dormer's previous Avalon Hill 
release, WIZARD'sQl EST, won'l warn to 
AMOl.BA WARS, ii has the same ' 
simplicity which made thai game so much fu 
play, yet is extremely challenging in its new ap- 
plications of liming and combat resolution 

entases. AMOfcBA WARS is available 
bv mail from the Avalon Hill tiaine Company, 
4517 Harford Rd., Baltimore. MD 21214 
Si 6. (XI plus Wo postage and handling (< 
diaus please add 20"/<i. overseas L usiomers JO 
Maryland residents please add 5% stale sales lax. 

C omptexlt] Ruling: 1 (10 being most complex) 
Numlter of Players: 2-6, ages 12 & up 
Playing Time: I -J hours 


Hoisting the Jolty Roger . . . Cont'd from Pg. 17 

Aboard the Royal Fortune, Roberts saw the 
approaching Ogle only to mistake the Swallow for a 
large merchant vessel. It was indeed ironic that 
Roberts, a fine seaman and crafty adversary, would 
pick this time to have a lapse in judgement . It was a 
lapse that he would pay dearly for. 

Roberts ordered one of his fleetships to capture 
the Swallow. Out went the Great Ranger and 
sometime later, unbeknownst to Roberts, was cap- 
tured by the Swallow, a 60 gun man-of-war. 

On the morning of 10 February 1722, Roberts 
was in his cabin aboard the Royal Fortune when 
word came that a ship was fas: approaching. He 
was not the least bit concerned even though five 
days had passed since the Great Ranger had sailed 
after another ship. The British ship slowly closed 
the gap to the unsuspecting pirate vessel. Roberts, 
meanwhile, was eating his breakfast, so strong was 
his confidence in himself and his ship. 

The two ships closed on one another and at 
1 1 ;0G AM, they were well in range. Roberts, by this 
time, finally became aware of what was occurring 
and ran up to the decks, bent on teaching the 
Swallow a lesson. With an immense roar, the 
Swallow's guns delivered a thunderous broadside. 
The Royal Fortune 's mizzen topmast came crashing 
down. The pirates replied in kind. As the smoke 
cleared, Roberts was seen to slump on the rope 
tackles of one of the guns. He soon died, his throat 
ripped by grapeshot. 

His death so unnerved the crew of the Royal 
Fortune that they surrendered. 

II. Prevailing Weather Conditions 

Wind Direction: 5 

Wind Velocity: 3 -normal breeze 

Wind Change: 5 

HI. Special Rules 

A. Morale 

B. Pirate Leaders 

C. Boarding 

D. Certain hexes are land as shown in black on the 

map diagram: 

IV. Special Victory Conditions 

Just a slugfest between a devil-may-care pirate and 
a determined Royal Naval officer. ^A_ 


Avalon Hill now sells blank, half inch 
counters pre-primed with standard unit notations 
in an assortment of six colors. Each counter sheet 
contains approximately 190 counters. The larger 
5/8" counters are not available in different colors 
or with preprinted unit notations. When ordering 
choose from the following colors: white, beige 
blue, yellow, gray, or mint green. Blank counter 
sheets are available for $2.00 each, or six for 
$7.50, or twelve for $14.00. Add 10% for postage 
and handling (20% for Canadian customers, 30% 
for overseas orders). Maryland residents please 
add 5% state sales tax. 


The savage splendor and pageantry' of ancient 
Rome lives again in this game of man-to-man 
gladiatorial combat. Each player assumes the 
role of one of a matched pair of gladiators pitted 
in a contest of arms to the death. Superbly trained 
and equipped for the sole purpose of entertaining 
the citizenry with their life and death struggles, 
each man must fight with all the skill he can 
muster for his very survival. There is no question 
of bravery in the arena. It is kill or be killed and 
each man must muster all the skills and cunning 
he can summon in this most desperate of battles 
for survival. There can be only one victor in the 
arena and no second chance for the loser. For 
missus can be granted the fallen only at the whim 
of the emperor, and all loo often mercy lakes the 
form of a quick end on an opponent's blade. Let 
the games begin! 

In GLADIATOR each player is represented by a 
single "counter" one inch wide and i 5/8" high 
which stands erect as long as the gladiator does. 
Each counter is back -printed with a rear-view 
image of the gladiator giving a three-dimensional 
feel as if the players were maneuvering miniature 
figurines. There are four classes of gladiator 
varying in type by armor and armament. Within 
each class the participants vary according to in- 
dividual ratings for training, strength, agility, 
constitution, combat capabilities, and types of 
armor worn. Regardless of rating, each gladiator 
wilt have some strength with which to exploit his 
opponent's weaknesses. Knowing how best to 
utilize these advantages is the key to survival and 
winning the game. 

In the Basic Game both gladiators are armed 
with short sword and shield. Each player records 
his movement secretly in an attempt to gain a 
positional advantage over his opponent. Move- 
ment orders are then revealed and executed 
simultaneously. If in position to attack, each 
player then secretly allocates his available com- 
bat factors to any of a series of offensive 
maneuvers aimed at various parts of his oppo- 
nent's anatomy or defensive maneuvers to pro- 
tect himself from an adversary's attack. Combat 
is resolved, wounds inflicted and recorded, and 
checks made for incapacitating results. Play then 
proceeds in a like manner until one gladiator is 

In the Advanced Game, the Retarius makes its 
appearance, allowing the classic confrontation of 
antiquity: short sword vs. net and trident. The 
Retarius can strike from greater range with his 
trident while the swordsman is still too far away 
to harm his opponent, or trip or ensnare his 
opponent with a deftly swung net. At close 
quarters, though, it is the Retarius who is at the 
disadvantage with no shield to turn away his 
opponent's attacks. It is the classic struggle of 
strength vs. agility. 

In the Campaign Game, players assume the role 
of wealthy Romans vying to acquire great wealth 
through wise wagers on the success of their own 
stable of gladiators. In addition, each victorious 
gladiator can improve his characteristics through 
experience gained in the arena, although he also 
risks debilitating injury. Ultimately, a gladiator's 
supreme goal is to become the Emperor's cham- 
pion and win his freedom. 

GLADIATOR is best played with two par- 
ticipants, but can be played by any number- 
especially in the Campaign Game version. The 
average playing time varies from 15 minutes to a 
half hour, making multi-match tournaments a 
commonplace occurrence. In each game you get 
an 11" x 16" mounted mapboard, rulebook, 
gladiator log pad, and full color, double printed 
die-cut counters representing the gladiators and 
their weapons. 

GLADIATOR is available now by mail direct 
from The Avalon Hill Game Company, 4517 
Harford Road, Baltimore, MD 21214 for $9.00 
plus 10% for postage and handling (Canadians 
please add 20%, overseas customers 30%). 
Maryland residents please add 5% state sales tax. 


(on a scale of 1 [easy! to 10 [hard]) 



W hat wa s 13. J . doi ng on I he fai cfu I nigh t of 
December 24th? Maybe he wis pitching pennies 
against himself, This would explain the coins on 
[he office floor but wouldn't be very rational. 
Maybe be was playing CIRCUS MAXtMUS. Did 
he (brow [he darts on the board or did someone 
else place them there? 

Why did Shaw come if no one called him'? 
Maybe Shaw and D.J, pitched pennies and ihey 
had an argument. Remember ibat Shaw jingled 
change in his pockeis. How come (he list Shaw 
gave che invest tgators contained nine names but 
only seven are listed? Maybe Jim Dunnigan set up 
Shaw to murder D J. They worked together and 
are probably still friends. 

W r hat wai Hamblen holding back? He used 
10 be a computer programmer so maybe he used 
one io carry out the perfect crime. 

tt is jusi like Uh] [o be more Fascinated in the 
investigation than to express any sorrow over D.J. 
Maybe the eighth graders gave him a heart of 
sionc and he will kill just for the fun of ft* 

J have always considered Davis mysterious, 
but when he talks he is frank (as his name 
suggests): I doubt if he did it but if he did it was 
probably because D.J. makes his games fun. 

Alan R. Moon has always been unusual. I 
will let his case rest there. There are some in- 
teresting points, though. Maybe D,J. is realty 
dead. A. R. Moon did the whole issue so maybe he 
is taking over i he job. 

Zucker may be the spy from SP1 instead of 
Moon. Or maybe he is a game company maniac. 
He temporarily visits companies and leaves bad 
lidings Fur example, 3 DC lies in ruins. SPI is 
second io AH, and OSG was picked up and then 
dropped. Now AH has lost a developer''editor. 
Could GDW be iwatt.7 

Mrs. Barsoni may not be the innocent person 
she dissembles. One day she may have had to pay 
for the pi;/a and discovered she had no money 
(nor did D,J.|. After washing dishes at (he pizza 
shop after work, her wrath may have been very 
violent and she may havedirecied it towards D.J. 

Will we discover the killer who ■shot D.J. 7 
Thereare many who have a motive in this intricate 
plot. He could have been a past employee seeking 
revenge. Could Randall Reed be the kilter? Or 
maybe even Jack ftadey (sent from Moscow), 
This could be the biggest case since "The Hound 
of the Baskcrvilles." 

Dear readers* 

This was only one of many creative replies to 
thecontesttn Vol. 17. So. 4. I thought you might 
enjoy seeing d few of the more imaginative 

Dear Mr. Moon, 

After careful deliberation of the evidence. 1 
have committed to paper my conclusions te: the 
political assassination of Mr, Donald J, Green- 
wood. Heigh-ho, heigh-ho, to solve [he crime we 
go ... T 

After noticing that Baltimore detectives don't 
work on Christmas (subtitled "Death Takes a 
Holiday"), I got down to the serious business of 
searching for a killer, I immediately eliminated 
Christin, as her aim was so bad ihat she couldn't 
even kill i.k . let alone a gandy dancer such as 
Greenwood, I also eliminated the League of 
Women Voters as a suspect, for the simple reason 
that they had already committed their quota of 
political assassinations in Baltimore for 1980. 
This left me with only the Avalon Hill staff. 
Iranian militants, and Cpi. Teinham HO-2 leader 
with a squad, LMG. and a Panzerfausi) as 
suspects. The case narrowed stilt further when it 
was discovered Cpt, Teinham was tied up at a con- 
vent ion called CON -TACT which teaches 
wa r ,l- ;j i : i ers how E a wi n wi t hou t gl oati ng . Th is was 
a serious blow to the investigation since the good 
Captain was the only suspect known to have 
possession of an automatic weapon capable of the 
carnage performed upon I he deceased's body. 
The Iranian militants were eliminated when it was 
revealed they all were busy painting "Reagan" 
over all t hei r " Deal h t o Carl er ' " sig ns so as t o be 
ready for the new year. 

The Dans in |he Heart* Rhyme is a misleading 
clue. M was obviously just Mr. Greenwood's way 
of letting off steam toward his "loyal" subor- 

I again returned to the police log and deter- 
mined that the kilter made only one mistake in 
commitiingihc perfect crime. It occurred ai 10:14 
on December 24ih. Yes, boys and girts (he killer 
is . . . 

Col. Mustard with (he revolver in the study! 

NO? Wait a mmuie (wilh apologies to Mick 
Uhll, ii was , . . 

LtEBARSOTTt !!!?!! 

Letters to the Editor , 

The call to the police came from an 
anonymous tody caller who staled she heard 
shot s from t he A . H , o f f ices , W ii h ( h e assori ment 
of nuts that work at A.H.. no one from outside 
the company would be surprised enough by 
anything suspicious inside the building to call the 

When Lee confessed, she told the police that 
Grumpy. . ,crr, . .Greenwood asked her lost ay 
after work on ihe 24th. She said ihat Don im- 
mediately broke out a copy of GUNSf-INGER 
and proceeded lo teach her a variant dial he had 
thought o( while watching The Peer Hunter on 
Home Box Office the previous month. Mr. 
Greenwood's gamely (pardon the pun I advances 
took her by surprise. She shot Don with ihe .44 
semi -automatic he had given her to play the game 
with. But she said she only shot ance. 

Whjle Lee was still confessing, a call came 
from ihe Desk Sergeant. Mr. Shaw wanted to 
speak to ihe detectives in charge of the Green- 
wood case. He was instructed lo send Mr. Shaw' 
in . Lee was I a k en I o a eel I . A pa t rol car was senl to 
arrest Sneezy as an accessory before the act of 
murder (after all, Hamblen did design 1 he game). 

Mr, Shaw entered the Detective's Office and 
broke down. He confessed io killing Mr. Green- 
wood. He said he wenl to speak to Don about put- 
ting another SAIL BAKON article in THE 
GENERAL. He said Don jusi sat there and 
moaned (probably because he had already been 
shot once by Lee). Tom got nervous at the idea of 
being rejected for noi being a true wargamer, so 
nervo us t h ai he d ro p pod some of ( h e co 1 n s t ha [ he 
continuously plays wich in his pocket. His nen - 
ousnes*. quickly turned io anger, Tom saw a pistol 
lying atop the non~working water cooler and 
unloaded ihe clip into Dun. This only accounts 
for seven of the thirty bullet holes in Mr. Green- 
wood's body. (One shot from Lee and (he remain- 
ing six bullets in ihe clip from Tom). 

Another call from ihe front: Frank Davis was 

Frank confessed. (Agatha Christie is scream- 
ing right now, j He said Ihat he had decided to star 1 
to get to know the people ho worked with better, 
so he had gone to see Alan Moon (whom he re- 
ferred to as Governor Moon -beam). Kevin 
Zucker and Mick Uhl were already in Moon's 
company. Moon, ever wary of things thai are 
"trendy" 1 (he's the one who dresses preppy J. said 
that they should form a Gang of Four and stage a 
cuhural revolt. (Do nol bo misled, Mr. Moon 
doesn't read Time or Newsweek. He learned 
about the Liang of Four by reading Doott&twrjfla 
the funny pages.) Moon said that THE 
GENERAL was a stagnant rag and would remain 
so as long as "you know who" remained Editor. 
He suggested that they play a campaign game of 
DIPLOMACY, using a secret alliance as a base 
from which to purge Ve Ed. Mick questioned the 
validity of ihe idea under ihe rules, bui Alan 
assured him that any problems could be rectified 
as soon as Alan was made editor by merely prim- 
ing them in The Question Box. Alan (who was the 
only one in the group with any Elan points to his 
c rcdi t ) as ked i f t hey we re a 1 1 i n agrcemen t . / ucker 
sleepily nodded yes, Uht didn't know what was 
going on bui agreed sothai he wouldn't look tike a 
dope, and Frank, still warning to be a part of the 
group bui being a bit bashful about his approval, 
coyly raised his hand, which made Alan very hap- 
py. Alan led them to Greenwood's office. Alan 
handed Zucker his own personal -44 semi- 
automatic (with the pearl handle and rich Corin- 
thian leather carrying case) and Zucker pumped 
five shois into Greenwood's body. Greenwood 
had appeared to be napping and snored wildly (it 
was later determined that Greenwood's lungs 
were slowly rilling with blood front the wounds he 
had al ready received f r om his fi r s 1 1 w o assai kin: s) , 
Uhl, who still thoughr it was jusi a game, gleefully 
let go a blast of seven shots. Frank figured thai 
Don must be dead by now so he couldn't be 
blamed for anything and fired seven shots, only 
five of which hit Greenwood because he slipped 
on some of the coins thai Tom Shaw had dropped. 
Then A tan stepped up and fired seven shois, five 
shots al Greenwood and two shots al the Avaftm 
Hitf Philosophy column. 

All of this carnage look place in I he span of an 
hour. About this time Lee started to feel guilty and 
called the police anonymously. 

The police investigation went smoothly right 
up to the first confession. At 1 1:1. son the nighi of 
the murder, ihe police received from Tom Shaw a 
list of nine names: Tom Shaw, Richard Hamblen, 
Mick Uht, Frank Davis, Alan R. Moon, Kevin 

Zucker and Lee Harsotti. Ii is interesting io note 
thai these same detectives were jusi returning io 
duty in Baltimore after having been tent to the 
Census Bureau. 

Ihe police look only two hours io eliminate 
ihe butler as a suspect: Mr. Greenwood didn't 
have one. 

The investigation was continually interrupted 
on Dec If* by dQXHU of people carrying bags of 
pretzels, six*packs and copies of M->ijW A T SEA 
slid in Ihe cellophane, which they had gotten for 
Christmas and were eager to find an opponent to 

Richard Hamblen's alibi was broken when his 
wife said he had gone into his game room and 
hadn'i come out > but she heard him sneeze occa- 
sionally. Upon further inspection it was 
discovered that Richard had cut a record out of a 
copy of MAD magazine emit led- ""Alfred E. 
Newman Sneezes to the Sound of Slim Whitman's 
Greatest Hits". Richard explained ihat it was the 
only way he could sneak out of the house to play 
RISK wit hou i his wife knowing. 

Ill was with no great amount of symbolism 
that the killers confessed on January 16th. Since 
I he idea of mass con fess ion i o one m u rdcr is " ' bor- 
rowed" from Murder on the Orient Express why 
shouldn't the confessions fall on the date in "The 
Night of January ]eth"?| 

With the investigation complete due to the 
confessions our faithful civil servants returned io 
their regular routine of Investigating murders, do- 
ing paperwork and playing SLEUTH (although 
some of the detectives won't play any longer; ihe 
cleaning lady keeps winning). 

At t he arraignment, the judge decided thai Lee 
aded in self-defense, Zucker, Davis and Uhl were 
coerced to do something thai they would other- 
wise not have done, Hamblen was innocent of the 
accessory charge, but guilty of designing a game 
with dangerous possibilities and attempted insult 
of a Joh n Wayne fa n i asy , and Shaw was noi o f a 
rational mind and was sentenced to spend two 
weeks locked in a room at the tn-Town Holiday 
Inn In Philadelphia and watch continuous reruns 
of Game* People Play while developing a way io 
play rw/AT solitaire. 

The Long A.R.M. of ihe law came down heavy 
on the assistant editor of THE GENERAL. His 
trial, which due io local prejudice had to be 
moved to Chevy Chase, MD, ended with a verdict 
of guilty of murder in the 6-1 column by reason of 
insanity. He was sentenced to The Asylum. 

Donald J. Greenwood (or what was left of 
him) was buried in Arlington National Cemetery 
(having been a war hero at the Battle of Bucholz 
Station during WWII} under a tombstone which 

Donald f. Greenwood 
Born: We Assume 

Died; December 24th 1&S0 of Lead Poisoning 
"The Only Deadline He Ever Mel" 
Rest In Peace 

The entire case was later overturned when it 
was d i scl osed t hat t he A. H . o ffices are ac t u all y at 
4517 Harford Rd., not at 20 E, Read St. Someone 
else had been killed. Quoth Greenwood; ""The 
rumors of my demise are greatly exaggerated." 
This is the last issue you get io edit, Alan. 



The Murderer is Alan R. Moon because: 

(1) He is the only suspect who has been pro- 
vided with a motive, Agatha Chnslie teaches us to 
ignore distracting clues and go for the suspect 
wiih a motive. 

(2) Anyone egocentric enough to included* 
articles by himself in his first venture as editor of 
so prest i gio us a publicat ion as THE GENERA L is 
ioo egocentric to allow anyone else to be the 
murderer in a puzzle of his own design. 

I reconstruct the murder as follows: Moon 
invites Greenwood lo an after-hours game of 
SQUAD LEADER on one pretext or another 
During the game Moon lures Greenwood into 
moving in the open (perhaps from his desk to the 
new water-cooler) and guns him down with an 
LMG at point-blank range. Using the4 column on 
Ihe (FT with a -2 modifier. Moon rolls a J, and 
Greenwood is KLA. Moon then arranges distract- 
ing clues (the darts and the coins) and goes oul lo 
buy himself a desk sign that reads "Alan R. 
Moon. Editor." 

David K. Rod 
Lawrence, KS 


Obviously Tom Shaw cracked under the 
pressure when he realized that Alan R. Moon 
would take over as editor and would soon be after 
his job as Vice President. 

So Tom confessed to the murder and began 
looking forward to a peaceful life behind bars 
rather then spending the rest of his life in fear of 
Ihe power-mad Moon. Meanwhile, the Russian 
Paratroopers are picked up by a submarine 
waiting for them in the Chesapeake Bay having 
completed their mission to assassinate America's 
greatest mind. Wait! Maybe they were actually 
SPI Paratroopers dressed to look like Russians 
disguised to look like reindeer. Or maybe I've 
been reading too many rules. 

Tim Board 
Brimfield, IL 63517 


Dear Alan: 

I read with great imeresl your article "TKO 
In Three". I am the recenl Michicon winner of 
VI TP and have amassed nine consecutive 
Japanese victories. I congratulate you on some of 
your insights. However, I hasten to add that your 
TKO system can be defeated by the stronger 
American players. 

It is unfair of me to say that your system is 
flawed without a demonstration. Actually, I 
wrote oul two pages of disagreements before I 
decided not i o divulge my winning secrets. It may 
suffice lo say that the lasi lime I lost wilh the 
Japanese (Chicago Wargaming Association 
Championship) was when I failed to take Dutch 
Harbor early in I he game by amphibious assault. 
Incidentally, I even disagree with your first turn 
setup and objectives for the Japanese. The dif- 
ference is in the conceptual understanding of the 
roles of amphibious and land based air units. 

T he only way t ca n pros- ide you with recourse 
to my statements is a match. Obviously* I do not 
relish taking i he Americans] Bui I can never resist 
an open challenge. Isn't ihat the implication of 
your si atemem ' 'and I w j 1 1 com i n ue t o pi ay wi t h i t 
till I am proven wrong". I will risk being ihe 
Americans if you agree to follow the published 
setup of Turn I and Ihe LBA— palrollcr stage of 
Turn It 1 will even make a small wager (5 200 1 on 
the outcome. 

W r e could play by mail although I haven't 
do ne t hat son of t h i ng be fore . H owe ver, I a m one 
of the stronger postal chess players. Perhaps we 
could meet in a "ncuiral" place. I travel frequently 
to New York City, but not to ihe Baltimore area. 

What do you suggest? If we can get a replay 
article out of ii and line up a mediator. I would 
consider raising the stakes io S500. 

Max Zavanelli 
Park Ridge, ILL 

/ didn 't expect anyone to take my challenge 
literally, especially since it was really just an atten- 
tion getter, However* since you have accepted mv 
challenge, I accept yours, with the following 

1 . The game is played with a utrictly enforced 
five minute time limit for each phase of each 
player s turn— patrolling ship phase, tbai- 
wormex, ami raiding ship phase. 

2. The moves are not recorded for a Series 
Replay, since this would stow down the game too 

J. No optional rules are used. 

4. I must use my "TKO" turn one setup, hut 
beginning with turn two, I have complete freedom 
m my play. It would not he fair to restrict my play 
after turn one, mnce the results of turn one could 
dictate I modify my hasu~ "TKO" approach. 
Turn two restrictions would reduce my ability to 
innovate In addition, "TKO" is a baste system; 
my play within it continues to evolve and aur prise 
is a strong weapon which I do not wish to give up 
so easily. 

Ay for the wager. While I like to gamble, I 
heed H'iltie Shoemaker's advice in his NY Off- 
Track Betting commercials when he says, "bet 
with your head, not over tt. " SI 00 would be no 
problem. $200 is a maybe. 

As to the tune and place, we 're in tuck. I will 
be attending CHACON in April (4%h t 5tK and 
6fhf. The organizer 's will even feature our match 
on their conveniutn schedule. 

Ptnaity. f feel compelled to issue a warning. 
Among myfriendsy I huve quite a reputation with 
the dice. And while Vi TP is a game of strategy, I 
have unbalanced many a game with my xtreaks. 
Die rolhng is the variable which Chess avoids. 

Alan R. Moon 



Q. Automatic TKO and TKO Condition Chan; 

which lighter's TKO Rating do you use; the 

flghEer who scored all the points or the fightei 

who might get the TKO? 

Ay Use I he TKO Rating of the fighter who is 

being hit, as he is the one who is susceptible lo a 


Q. Should ihe Excessive Rabbit Punch be a 
"Check Result Table'? 
A. Yes. 

Q. I f a figh ter h s H P Rat i ng goes down one i f he is 
a boxer . does a fig htcr' s C F go down o ne i f he i s a 

A. No. 

Q. The rules siaie i hat Coverup can be used as a 
strategy ai any lime in a round. If a card ihar has 
the possibility of a knockdown appears, can the 
Coverup be played immediately to eliminate (hat 
possibility, or should Coverup be used only after a 
punch has been resolved (or Action) and not to the 
middle of Action resolution? 
A. Coverup cart be used only after a punch has 
been resolved (or any subsequeni action due to 
that punch), 

Q, Welterweight Miguel Barreco ha*, ihe To] low- 
ing ratings: KDR 1ST, Khk 2: +4; total U, IT a 
second knockdown atlentpt is made what table is 
used? Also, in general what is the procedure if 
KDR I * KDR2is greater than iOdue tooptional 

A. Any lime the KDR 1 * KDR 2 is greater chart 
1 0. use 1 1 1 • i .' i t he ch art . 

0' Vi>n/dl Johnson (a light heavyweight) i* miss- 
fag his Cut Rating. What is it? 
A. Von&cll Johnson's Cut Rating should be 
CO/CH: 5/2 

G. The example in the rules for using up En- 
durance shows Endurance up at the end of Round 
9, but the reduction starts in Round 8. 
A. This was a typographical error. Reduction 

should start with Round 10, 

O. Killer Instinct clarifications: 

■) Are cards used to resolve Killer Instinct in 
your hand used to resolve all actions (i.e., do the 
cards used for scoring punches cut attempts, etc., 
come from the Killer Instinct cards and noi the 
unused deck?)? 

A. Yes, the Killer Instinct cards are used to 
determine alt action that occurs during that time. 

hi If not enough cards exist for drawing all 
Killer Instinct cards you are entitled to, do you use 
just whai is there? 

V Yes, use only the cards which are left in the 
round. There is no carryover. 

0- It would be nice to put down a list of weight 
classes for people who do not remember if 

flyweights are lower than bantamweights, fore*- 


A ► Hea * j weigh t , Ltgh I- Heav y weigh t , M iddle- 

weighl. Junior Middleweight. Welterweight, 

Junior Welterweight, Lightweight, Junior 

Light weighi. Featherweight, Bantamweight, 


Q. One card has Cut -3, but no fighter has that 
possibility. Please explain. 
A. There is also a card that has Cut -9 and Cut 
-10. These are included for percentage reasons 
and for possible later use in case a fighter comes 
along who has more ability than Ali (the best to 
date) at cutting his opponent, 

Q. Will there be cards for Too Tall Jones and 
Lyle Ateado? 

A. Too Tall Jones may someday be rated but not 
until he becomes a bona fide contender or at least 
a respectable fighter. Since Akado returned to 
football there will not be a card for him. 

0- Arc points received for cuts added to the point 


A. Yes, 

Q. When there are enough points built up for a 
TKO. does it take place immediately or at the end 
of the current round? 

A. At the end of the round. 

Q, Re "Adjusting the KDR According to Oppo- 
nent's HP": If both fighters have equal HP's does 
this rule affect them both, or is it not used til this 

A. If affects both— they could each have weak 
defense but a devastating punch 

Q. As a fighter loses endurance, his PL and HP 
are reduced. As his HP is reduced, should KDR 1 
of the other fighter be reduced accordingly? 
A. Yes. 


1 1ft. 62 & S9.21 Can a broken unit remain in a hex 
with an enemy scout? 

A, No, but neither could a scout claim a prisoner 
by moving into a broken unit's hex during the 
Movement Phase. 

1 21 .42 If an engineer squad deploys, do both half- 
squads retain the smoke making capacity? 

A r No— neither of them does. 

113*42 Can motorcyclists dismount into an adja- 
ccm hex during the Movement Phase in the same 
way passengers dismount a vehicle? 
A, No 

133,75 If enemy units leave a bridge detonation 
hex are the detonation DRM accumulated to that 
poirn lost or are they permanent? 
A. Permanent 



SI BJKCT Game of WWII Normandy Invasion 


THE LONGEST DA V, Avalon Hills first 
"monster" game, was (he first of its breed to 
undergo analysis in the RfiCL Its cumulative 
rating of 2, 83 was good enough for 23th place on 
the chart which must be regarded as somewhat of 
a disappointment given the extraordinary length 
of the garnet development and its classification 
as a special interest item. We pointed out 
previously that the RBG ratings for the SQUAD 
LEADER gamettes were somewhat biased 
because the number of purchasers inclined not lo 
like the game was lessened by the fact that they 
first had to purchase SL. Those who did not like 
the game system would not buy the expansion 
gamettes and thus the reviewers of the game 
would be more inclined to rate the gametics 
favorably. Logically, a similar phenomenon 
should also be in play for TLD. The S65 pricctag 
made ii very hard for consumers to mistake the 
scope of this litle. One would think then that such 
buyers would be predisposed to favor a simula- 
tion of these proportions; play ability advocates 
being unlikely to take the $65 plunge. 

Nevertheless the title got only average marks 
when compared to its smaller brethren in the 
RBG. The Play Balance rating of 3. 30 was 
bettered by 68^ of the other games in the chart. 

and the Overall Value mark of 3.15 put it in the 
bottom fifth of the claw— a placement no doubt 
made easier by the J65 pricetag. The worst of- 
fender though is the J. 53 rating for Completeness 
of Rules— a figure which beats the performance 
of only three other games in the chart {19I4 W 

On the positive side T TLD chalked up 1 1 th best 
performances in the Realism and Components 
categories. One would have thought, however, 
that the Realism rating would be even better given 
the tremendous detail and research so much in 
evidence in the game. 

The playing time figure has been bastardised 
by a merging of ratings for both the scenarios and 
the Campaign Game. The former can be played in 
a much shorter lime period, and the latter requires 
even more playing time than indicated below. In 
both cases, a long setup time adds to the problem 
of high piece density. 

TLD is an historian's delight, but those who 
prize payability above all else should look beyond 
the 1500 counters and 2000 towns of TLD to 
shorter games; a statement which can be safely 
made about most, if not all, games of (his genre. 

m ^ 0*r*0**i m* mtm^^^^^^+ „ n ji,w, p ,^^^^ ^ , 

The B. 



The games are ranked by iheir cumulative scores which is an average of the 9 categories tor each 
game Whde ii may be fairly argued thai each category should not weigh equally against the others. 
we use it ooly as a generalization of overall rank By breaking down a game's ratings into individual 
categories the gamer is able to discern for himself where the game is strong or weak in the qualities 
he values the most. Readers are reminded thai the Game Length category is measured in multiples of 
ten minutes and thai a rating of 18 would equal 3 hours. 



yKMM X* 'i ' < WiW WXMW*OIWMMW»**<* » 



crescendo of ooom 
cross of iron 






2 52 


























2 94 

2 36 


1 82 














1 8B 





W S fir I.M. 



9 2 









2 62 



2 16 

21. 7 




2. IS 








2 31 







2 54 

2 34 





2 32 









2 64 


2 35 


2 07 

44. 1 

1 1 
1 2 


2. 52 

2 2B 












2. S3 





















2. S3 




3rd REICH 

2 57 










34 9 












2 05 





2 26 



2 S3 


1 86 




20 2 









2 09 




32 6 




2 32 


2 31 














2. SO 






































2 52 





IB. 8 


















2 40 





4 20 






2 n 

2 04 


2 03 









FRANCE 1 940 





3 30 









2. S3 

2 23 

2 60 

2 40 













2 39 

3 27 




















3 1 





2. SI 






3 41 







2. SO 






3 39 














2 76 















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3 6 














3 10 

3 00 







18 8 





2 48 





2 46 





D DAY '77 







3 00 


2 94 














2 96 


4 1 



2. 66 

2.1 3 






21. B 

















3 IB 



1 74 











2 80 












3. IB 




2 52 

2 12 

5 38 
5.1 5 









3 40 

3 28 






3 43 








4 20 









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3 18 







S 48 









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3 02 








19 6 


Vol. 1 7, No. 4 polled a 3.73 cumulative rating 
which made it superior only to the DUNE issue 
among the preceding six issues despite the 
unusually high amount of feedback the issue 
generated. As usual, the feature article took "best 
of issue" honors in our 1 200 point scoring system 
which awards each first place vote with three 
points, second place with two points, and third 
place with one point. 

The Von Stsuffenberg Plan 312 

TKO in Three 184 

The N I seem i-Bi scar tHighwav . 140 

The Asylum 128 

The Wiierd's Best 93 

The Tory and Indian War SO 

Dirty Weather Cruising 78 

Settle or Brussels 60 

Avalon Hill Philosophy . . ............ 43 

Flying CAP 28 

Bog Forts end Terran Tanks . . . . - . 27 

Fortress Europe Errata & Clarification* 27 

Avalon Hill and its parent company Monarch 
Services have recently undergone a corporate 
reorganization resulting in a name change under 
which the company's stock is traded. Previously 
listed under the title Nationwide Diversified, the 
company's stock was sold over the counter in 
Baltimore for approximately $3.00 per share for 
many years. Recent corporate developments have 
caused the new stock asking value to spiral up- 
wards to the vicinity of $1 2.00 per share as of this 
writing. Gamers interested in investing to acquire a 
piece of their favorite game company should re- 
quest information from; Harold Cohen, at 4517 
Harford Rd. Baltimore, MD 21214. The shares of 
Monarch Avalon, Inc are publicly traded on the 
NASDAQ System under the symbol MAHI. 

Avalon Hill will be making major appearances 
at two game conventions this summer: ORIGINS 
in San Mateo, CA and GEN CON EAST in Cherry 
Hill, NJ. We will be sponsoring a dozen events at 
both shows. More details will be made public as 
soon as we get them, 

Napoleonics fans near Columbus, OH won't 
want to miss the Napoleonic Symposium sched- 
uled for August 14-16. Keynote speaker of the 
symposium will be celebrated author and noted 
Napoleonic authority, David Chandler. Professor 
Chandler is the Head of the History Dept, 
Sandhurst Military Academy, England, and is 
author of several landmark Napoleonic works in- 
cluding Campaigns of Napoleon and Dictionary of 
the Napoleonic Wars. Attendance will be by invita- 
tion only. Those wishing an invitation should con- 
tact: Jim Getz, 546 Colonial Ave., Worthington, 
OH 43085. 

Those interested in getting involved in the 
postal play of multi-player or otherwise cumber- 
some pbm games could do worse than consulting 
Michael Mills' ZINE DIRECTORY which attempts to 
list all known amateur game 'zines involved in car- 
rying participation postal wargames. His listing tries 
to provide guidelines for selecting a 'zine in which 
to play based on types of games offered, date of in- 
itial publication, regularity, and opinions relating to 
overall quality. Among the listings in his directory 
are 'zines carrying postal games of DIPLOMACY, 
WS&IM. Fifty cents will get you a sample from 
Michael Mills, 1585 Quaker Rd, Macedon, NY 

This issue's cover by Rodger MacGowan 
features the Soviet Marshal Semyon Timoshenko 
— the defender of Moscow, with German soldiers 
advancing over a three dimensional representation 
of the STALINGRAD mapboard. The theme is 
similar to that used in Vol. 17, No. 3, also drawn 
by Rodger, which proved to be our most popular 
cover art in quite some time. 

Infiltrator's Report 

Carroll Reynolds (pictured below at right receiv- 
ing the Super Bowl Trophy from AHFSL commis- 
sioner Tom Shawl got off to a slow start in the 8th 
Annual Avalon Hill FOOTBALL STRATEGY League 
with a 2-4-1 record, but won 12 of his next 13 
games to finish 14-5-1. Reynolds' Kansas City 
Chiefs franchise defeated the Giants of Cliff Willis 
34-21 in the Super Bowl to earn Carroll $160 in 
prize money plus plaque and trophy. 

It was easy to pick the winner of the race in 
Contest No 99 Red had obvious advantages that 
even the most inexperienced player of the game 
could have grasped at a glance. However, the 
contest required you to pick the best possible move 
for Red as well as determining who the most likely 
winner was. The best possible move for Red was 
one which would result in a 100% guaranteed 
victory for Red — a rare happening in CIRCUS MAX- 
IMUS where victory can be lost at the last moment 
in any number of ways. 

No chariot could cross the finish line on this turn 
so Red's major task was to put himself into the best 
possible position from which he could win the race 
on the following turn. Red cannot guarantee the 
order in which he'll move next turn so his task is to 
minimize his chances of being attacked while main- 
taining enough position to guarantee that his 
superior speed will enable him to cross the finish 
line ahead of the others. Red accomplishes both 
goals by using only 22 of his 23 movement points 
to pull his team alongside the wreck on the inside at 
8-6, In this space. Red is immune to any and all at- 
tacks, but with his superior speed is still guaranteed 
to edge out his opponents with a one space strain 
on the last turn. However, if he used his last remain- 
ing endurance factor to brake alongside the wreck 
he will not only lose his strain capability on the last 
turn, but also be penalized for running out of en- 
durance prematurely. Therefore, Red must make 
an attack in order to use up one of its pre-recorded 
movement points this turn. The only safe attack to 
make is a ram attack vs the team of either White, 
Black, or Purple. The target is of no consequence as 
the object is not to cause damage, but merely to 
slow down without using endurance. The alter- 
native, to move the Red team to 8-5, would expose 
the team to a possible crippling ram attack in both 
this and the following turn. 

There were literally hundreds of winners to 
Contest No. 98 in what has proved to be one of our 
most popular contests ever. Those surviving the 
luck of the draw to win $ 1 merchandise cer- 
tificates were: C. Silverstein, Washington, D.C.; E. 
Margeson, So. Beloit, IL; R. Klingman, Wichita, KS; 
P. Gtlliatt, Chester, VA; M. Gray, Arlington.VA; M. 
Hermanson, Arlington Heights, IL; T. Setzer, 
Norfolk, VA; G. Young, New Boston, Ml; T. 
O'Connor, Orlando, FL; and B. Beyma, Pocomoke, 


THE GENERAL will last an? gaming convention in this space 
free of charge on a space available oasis provided lhai we are 
notified at least four months in. advance of the convention dale. 
Each listing imisi include the name* date, rile, and contact ad- 
>J s ..' - -. of the convention. Additional information of interest to 
Avalon Hill gamers such as tournaments or events utilizing AH 
games is solicited and wiEl be primed if made available. 
Avalon Hill does not necessarily attend « endo* se these gather- 
togs, nor do we guarantee that events using AH games will be 
held. Readers are urged to contact the listed sources for further 
information; before making plans to attend 

APRIL 25-26 
MADCON III, Madison, WI 
Contact; Pegasus Games, 222 W. Gorham, 
Madison, WI 53703. NOTE: DIP, WQ 

MAY 1-2-3 
USACON 3, Mobile. AL 
Contact: Leo Vaulin, 5856 Lisloy Dr., Mobile, 
AL 36608. 

MAY 15-16-17-18 
Contact: Bruce Knight, 2011 B St., Laurent 
Blvd, Ottawa, ONT K1GIA3. 

MAY 22-23-24-25 
GRIMCON Ell. Oakland, CA 
Contact: POB 4153, Berkeley, CA 94704. 
NOTE: Fantasy Role Playing Emphasis 

JUNE 12-13-14 
MICH1CON 10 GAMEFEST, Rochester, Ml 
Contact: Metro Detroit Gamers, POB 787, 
Troy, MI 48099. NOTE: Past sponsor of 

JUNE 26-27-28 
Contact: Game Alliance of Salem, 481 Ferry 
St.. Salem, OR 97301. NOTE: 1R, DIP. RB 

JUNE 26-27-28 
Contact: Stephen Zagieboylo, 33 Grove St., 
Norfolk, MA 02056. NOTE: Fantasy role- 
playing and board games only. 

JULY 3-4-5 
Contact: Pacific Origins, P.O. Box 5548, San 
Jose, CA 95150. NOTE: THE National Adven- 
ture Gaming Convention 

JULY 17-18-19 
CWACON 81, Chicago, IL 
Contact: Chicago Wargamer's Ass'n, 1 East 
Schiller #18B, Chicago, IL 60610. 

JULY 17-18-19 
ODYSSEY 81, Durham, NH 
Contact: R, Bradford Chase, UNH Simulations 
Game Club, Memorial Union Building, Univer- 
sity of NH, Durham, NH 03824 

JULY 23-24-25-26 
GENCON EAST, Cherry Hill, NJ 
Contact: GENCON EAST, POB 139, Middle- 
town, NJ 07748. NOTE: Formerly EASTCON 

JULY 38, AUGUST 1-2 

NANCON, Houston, TX 

Contact: Nan's Toys & Games, 1385 Galleria 

Mall, 5015 Westheimer, Houston, TX 77056. 

Contact: Edward F. Stevens, Jr., 83 N. Main 
St., Rockland, ME 04841. 

AUGUST 20-21-22-23 
GENCON, Kenosha, WI 
Contact: GEN CON, POB 756, Lake Geneva, 
WI 53147. NOTE: THE National Fantasy Role 
Playing Convention 




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s... ..:..- , s . s - : s. ■- '•'.. ■<■■ 
I No. 4, Vol »No I, Vol s*No. 3 VoD. S)Nd 4dt 
■t .rj-'i ..,r.n .1 EltE LliII-iTR +n,. Ir.. T-ur 
ilw*.*. Mj.-harl kruuiT, Jai I S. ■Siih Si A[H |l. 
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Onli ElKluJIosvinii tif..\f.KAl hat-l tsuia jrc *1lEI j^ilablc. PriCeiS K.SOpCt iSaUrtplm JO't pOSlMti CSCft is^rn.' by UJl>fci3 maLlL-r; k-^lurt; artklci a^c Jc%jjj»a|pj h> .in .1-1,. 1. i I."), scries, rcptjys, gfi* jutiriwd, 

jieJ ti;inJ5nHLk.'iuEj!i's MaryldnJ midenti pkiEM'JuJJ 54>siaic«atesiflx. GENERAL posing* COf/poo? mop and lEKEjiumtxr follow inn cuH iN*.ucivihe Ecadtn rjiiiiR t>f rhat fkari.L-ular iksue a> u whole. The nuiitbcrv 

Fr.fMhe ukL'il fur this mr mlier pan s i"f dm t>ut lii k**n ij. u.lM i E \t\ o I hntic ivsuc-s.wc; EtquciE ihdl j-tiUspwiTv ttillDViEEtiJilidJ'.iLlujI vubijiMJlsiclcr liilliLniJiiibcTtTl'jirlifle'.ahDUl ihal pJin)E7iHEhdl isvut. KsUL'sli'slcsdinncd 

dhcTiiatc sdectkms shiiuiiJ ysmr lirvt dwice he no lotiBtj avuiiahie The? indes below lists the comenis ui are tine color reprint! lii previously oui-of-itock is-sues. 

Vol. 12. \o.l— 
Vol. U.\t>.l- 
Vol. 14, No. 1— 
Vol. 14. No. 4= 
Vi.rl 14, fa 5 ' 
Vol. 14. No.6— 
Vol. 15, So. J- 
Vol. 15, No. 1 
Vnl. IP. No. 3- 

Viil,|"E, Ny. J- 

Vol, |Sl Nn,3- 

Vtil. ti, Nip.E. 

Vul. IA, No. I- 
Vnl. (A. Nn, 2- 
>ul. 16, Nil. J- 
Vul. IA. Nn.4- 

\.A. IA, S.i. ?: 

Vol. lft,No,4E- 
Vul. 17, No. 1- 

VdI. 17. No. I— 
Vol. )7, No. 3- 

VdI. 1 7. No. 4- 

VdI. 17, No. 5- 

Tohrwl;. f'anzrrhftiz, lluLjjc, Blil/krice. Panzeri Leader. Si aliiUErad . . . 3.10 

Kingmaker- -7, Alexander, Squad Leader . . . 3. If 

Arab Israeli Wilis — .?, Stalingrad, Russian Cam paitfti. Third Rcitfh, War Al S«a. . 

. 3.17 

. 2.« 


Vtaory in rhe Pacific — 2, SttttbtgftHt, Third Reich, RichthofrtVi Wa.r, Jul hind, 1776 .. 

SquUl I c-i.lui I, WSAIM, K's-,M,u-i .,:r ; ..|'H. MuSsSdv.Siiic.liir Ffoopm, UurJ Hci, 

|J-|>ay, Victory in thp Puctjic. Panicr LcKdcr. Caesar's Legions, Tobruh . . ,3.51 

OettySburt— J< SQUmf Leader. Slitvhip Trooperv, Rusvbn Campaign . , . 3.4K 
•Pan/cr Leader, SEaiingrad. Third Reich, j>{}ay. Rail SJarori, Vjelory in The Pacific . 
* An,sau It on Crete— 3, Invavion of Mali a , Kusviait Campaign, Third Reich, Sii.u,id Leader s v\ar ai 

Sea . . . 3.44 
•Submarine— 2. Caesar "t Legions, Pan/erolilv, Third Reich, V>S &. IM, Squad Leader, 

Walcrloo . . . .1.31 
•Midway. WS 4IM Origins— Third Reich. ATrika Korp*. 0-Day, Squad LeAdcr, Fmdali Alcvia, 

War ai Sea., SiarAllip Truoper* . . . 3.L3 
•i 'II \\ : "- i" 'hi; |',i. ,h, , V, ,ir .,! >„m. \nt FWKll ft"l 

-, M.IE-lli|' !•■ 


, Pnuci 


"AniiO — 3, Ptin&rbfifz. Thtrd Reich, Napoleon, 1776. Oiplomacy . ■ 
*Bivmart;k-4. PwtzerNitz, Afrik* Korps, |T7%, WS & IM , 3.28 
"ParurcE Leader, CfOO fff !tvn> vVair a.E Sea, Tubruk. 1776, Midway , . . 3.33 
"Magic Realm— J, TtttHuakM Ckvftp^gft, Cross of Iron, Third Reich . . . 3.23 

■'The \i . ■:.-. CJictEpjiiiin. Submarine 1 . SLarshij> Ttooperi, War ai Sea, Panj^Eblit/,. Rail HaEon, 

Napoleon, tlliirhrieg . . . 3-2~t 
*Oune— 3, Anztv <t player Diadem. Oiplumacy. Ourdow Sufsival, Anzb — 2, Paiuerbiii/ . . .3.1^^ 
"War & Peace — 3. Hflfuf \fti, I hird Reich, Cross of Iron. Crescendo ni, Midway. MagK 

Realm. Luftwaffe , . , 2.79 

*CresceEido uf DtKHfl — 3, VtcH/ry tn The Poctftc, Microcompuler Ciamev, Waterloo . , 3, |K 
•Afrifca Korpv. Cna Of Iron. Third Reieh. Crescendo of Doom, Air Force, Russian Campaign, 

Victory in the i'acifiir . . . 3.34 
-•porircss fcuropa— 4. Crofi oj Irtin. Midway, VITP, 1776, Wi/ard's Qtwsl, Siaiship Troopieis, 

Napoleon . . . 3.73 
"CirciLs Masimus. thtrtf fietrh—2. RiehlhofciA tt'ar. Squad [ eadei, StaLingrad. Pan«r Leader. 

Kinjfmater, Majjic Realm 




Plane to Plane Combat in the 
European Theatre of WWII 

INSTRUCTIONS ^tpi-'i-.ivg^ru',:*, placing 3 
number Linking fnnrr 1 Through 9 in Ihe dp 
propriate spaces to the nghl II equating excel 
lent. 5 average: and ftWrlbW. EXCEPTION 
Rare ktBtm No. 10 in terms ol minutes necessary 
to play game as recorded in 10- minute mere 
-nenis EXAMPLE: If you've found that il lakes 
'mo and a half hours lo plav FRANCE 1940. you 
Mould give it a GAME LENGTH rating of "15" 
Participate in these reviews only if vou art 
\ii-p. .:■ with (he tjami? m question. 

Physical Quality 



Use of Understanding 

Completeness of Rules 
Play Balance 

Eicitenent Level 
Overall Value 
Game Length 

The rewew sheet may be cut out. photocopied. 
or merely drawn on a separate sheet ol paper. 

Mail it to our 4517 Harford Road 1 address with 
your contest enrry or opponents wanted ad. Mark 
v.i: 1 ■ (sr-i-Miij-'iii 1 -! v to !■■■■ dti^ntiori of the R Si 
D Depart ment 




Top ten lists are seemingly always in vogue these days. Whether the sub- 
ject is books on the Best Seller List, television's Nielsen ratings, or even 
games, the public never seems to tire of seeing how their individual favorites 
stack up numerically against the competition. Our preoccupation with this 
national pastime is almost akin to routing the home team on to victory every 
Sunday. So to further cater to your whims (and to satisfy our own curiosity) 
we unveil THE GENERAL'S version of the gamer's TOP TEN. 

We won't ask you to objectively rate any game. That sort of thing is 
already done in these pages and elsewhere. Instead, we ask that you merely 
list the three (or less) games which you've spent the most time with since you 
received your last issue of THE GENERAL. With this we can generate a con- 
sensus list of what's being played ... not just what is being bought. The 
degree of correlation between the Best Selling Lists and the Most Played List 
should prove interesting. 

Feel free to list any game regardless of manufacturer. There will be a 
built-in Avalon Hill bias to the survey because you all play Avalon Hill games 
to some extent but it should be no more prevalent than similar projects under- 
taken by other magazines with a special interest -based circulation. The 
amount to which this bias affects the final outcome will be left to the in- 
dividual's discretion. 

The games I've spent the most time playing during the past two months 

1. Want-ads will be accepted only when printed on this farm or a facsimile and must be accom 
panied by a 50c token tee. No refunds. Payment may be made in uncancelled U.S. postage stamps. 

2. For Sale, Trade, or Warned To Buy ads will be accepted only when dealing with collector's 
items (out of print AH games) and are accompanied by a SI. 00 token fee. No refunds. 

3. Insert copy on lines provided (25 words maximum) and print name, address, and phone 
number on the appropriate lines. 

4. Please PRINT. If your ad is illegible, it will not be printed, 

5. So that as many ads as possible can be printed within our limited space, we request that yon use 
official state and game abbreviations. Don't list your entire collection, list only those you are most 
interested in locating opponents for. 

Afrika Korps— AK, Air Force— AF. Alexander— AL. Alpha Omega— AO, Amoeba Wars— AW. 
Anzio— AZ, Arab- Israeli Wars — AIW. Armor Supremacy —AS, Assault On Crete/ Invasion Of 
Malta— AOC. Bismarck— BIS. Blitzkrieg— BL. Battle Of The Bulge— BB. Caesar Alesia— CAE. 
Caesar's Legions— CL. Chancellorship— CH. Circus Maiimum— CM, Cross Of Iron— COt. 
Crescendo Of Doom— COD, Dauntless— DL, D-Day— DD, Diplomacy— DIP, feudal— FL, Flat 
Top— FT. Fortress Europa— FE. France 40— FR. Fury tn The West— FITW, Geilysburg-CE. 
Gladiator — GL, Guns Of August— GOA. Insurgency— INS, Jutland— JTJ, Kingmalter— KM, The 
Longest Day— TLD. Luftwaffe— LW, Machiavelli— MA. Magic Realm— MR. Midway— 
MD. Napoleon— NP, Naval War— NW. Objective: All am a— OA, Origins— OR, Outdoor 
Survival— OS, Panzerblitz— PB. Panzer Leader— PL, Rail Baron— RB, Richihofcn's War— RW, 
The Russian Campaign— TRC, Samurai— SA, Squad Leader— SL, Shenandoah— SH, 
Stalingrad -ST A L, Starship Troopers— SST, Source Of The Nile— SON. Submarine— SUB. 
Tactics II— TAC. Third Reich— 3R. Tobrult— TB. Trireme— TR, Victory In The Pacific— 
VITP, Viva Espana— VE. War and Peace— W&P, War At Sea— WAS, Walcrloo-WAT. Wizard's 
Quest— WQ. Wooden Ships & Iron Men— W SIM. 

♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ , 

Opponent Wanted 50$ t CONTEST NO 100 

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tt is the German January, 1943 turn in a game of STALINGRAD 
They have four turns left in which to take Stalingrad or five turns left in 
which to eliminate all Russian units. The odds are against them, but the 
game is not yet lost. You can optimize the German chances by attacking 
at critical points, eliminating as many Russian units as possible and leav- 
ing your units in position to exploit success. The Germans have four 
replacement factors saved, the Russians have none. The replacement rate 
for Stalingrad is eight factors per turn. 

To enter the contest merely write the attack factor of each German 
unit in the hex you will move it to. Limit: one entry per subscriber. 

Ten winning entries will receive certificates redeemable for free AH merchandise. To be valid 
an entry must be received prttir to the mailing of the neit GENERAL and Include a numerical 
rating Tor the issue hh a whole as well as list Ihe besl 3 articles. The solutinn will be nnnuunccrj tn 
(tie nexl issue and the winners in the following Issue, 

Issue as ■ whole , 
Best J Articles 

(Rale from I ID 10, with I equaling eicellen I, ID equaling terrible)